Amazon Wildlife Peru Travel

Sandoval Lake Lodge, Amazon Peru, Amazon Wild, Tambopatata Travel

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Amazon Wildlife Center 3days/2nights

Amazon Wildlife Center 3 days/2nights:

The Amazon is the largest rainforest on Earth. It’s famed for its unrivalled biological diversity, with wildlife that includes jaguars, river dolphins, manatees, giant otters, capybaras, harpy eagles, anacondas and piranhas. The many unique habitats in this globally significant region conceal a wealth of hidden species, which scientists continue to discover at an incredible rate.

Between 1999 and 2009, at least 1,200 new species of plants and vertebrates have been discovered in the Amazon biome (see page 6 for a map showing the extent of the region that this spans). The new species include 637 plants, 257 fish, 216 amphibians, 55 reptiles, 16 birds and 39 mammals. In addition, thousands of new invertebrate species have been uncovered. Owing to the sheer number of the latter, these are not covered in detail by this report.

  • Length: 3 Days/2 Nights .
  • Type of service: Private or Group .
  • Location: Southern Peru, Madre de Dios Department, Puerto Maldonado, Sandoval Lake Reserve, Tambopata Reserve .
  • Activities: Amazon Wildlife Center, jungle trips, maloka lodge sandoval .
  • Altitude: 139 – 400 m.a.s.l.
  • Best time to visit: All Year .
  • Departure: Every day .
  • Minimum of participants: 2 .
  • Maximum of participants: 10 .
  • Price per person: 230 USD

Itinerary to Amazon Wildlife Center:

Service level of the Amazon Wildlife 3 days:

  • We will pick you up from your hotel
  • We will pick you up from the airport in our bus or airport
  • We take our boat about 45 minutes
  • We register in the reserve sandoval
  • We will walk 5 kilometer about 2 hour to sandoval lake reserve
  • pm: plus 40 minutes trips to canoe rowing until our  lodge , Lunch and free time
  • We start to explorer in our conoe where you will see giant river otters, caiman ,turtle,birds ,monkeys ,macaws
    Dinner
  • Night walk

Day 2 : Breakfast

  • Today we explore the jungle to meet the diversity of fauna and flora
  • Lunch / free time
  • we will visit the Sandoval lake in our canoe paddle
  • Dinner
  • Today we will see alligators in our paddle canoe

Day 3 : Start 2 hour walk whre going to see to macaw palm tree

  • Breakfast
  • We will go back to river Madre de Dios to get on our boat to return to Puerto Maldonado
  • Arrive to Puerto Maldonado City and transfer to airport or bus stations

Quick Itinerary of the Amazon Wildlife Center 3 days:

  • Tour Day 1: Puerto Maldonado – Maloka Lodge to Amazon Wildlife Center .
  • Tour Day 2: Amazon Wildlife Center – Macaw Palm Tree – Giant River Otters .
  • Tour Day 3: Amazon Wildlife Back to Puerto Maldonado .

Tour Itinerary

 

Amazon Wildlife Center 3 days / 2 nights

Tour Day 1: Puerto Maldonado – Maloka Lodge to Amazon Wildlife Center

You are welcomed and pick-up from the airport/coach terminal of Puerto Maldonado by our Representative to take you to our office where you can leave your baggage not necessary for the trip, but you need to bring a backpack for your personal items and more. Then, we transfer you to a local port where you board a motorboat and navigate down the Madre de Dios River.

On the way, we observe various mammal species such as turtles, birds, lizards, monkeys, turtles, caimans, etc., until we reach a checkpoint of the Sandoval Lake Reserve and after passing a check, we start walking for 5 km (1 and half an hour) to reach Sandoval Lake where we take a canoe bringing us to the Maloka Lodge.

There, we accommodate ourselves and after lunch, we return sailing the lake in a canoe to see its typical inhabitants – giant river otters, black caimans, a prehistoric bird shansho, herons, cormorants, kingfisher, etc. Then, we return to the lodge for dinner to later get back to the lake again, this time to undertake an evening caiman observation, as caimans are nocturnal animals. Our professional naturalist Tour Guide shows and explains us about these animals. We overnight in the Maloka lodge.

Tour Day 2: Amazon Wildlife Center – Macaw Palm Tree – Giant River Otters

Today, we wake up very early to go to the surroundings of the Sandoval Lake where huge number of various palms grow in its water creating an area of marsh.

This place is called .Palm Tree Clay Lick (Collpa de Palmeras) and it attracts various macaw species and other parrots to eat sawdust of its palms as it contains sodium, calcium, potassium and other minerals helping them to digest. Then, we go back to the lodge to be given breakfast. Later, we take a next trip going to observe stunning flora and fauna of the Sandoval Lake Reserve.

We can appreciate monkeys, deer, wild boars, tapirs or spectacled bears, just to name a few. For lunch, we get back to the lodge. Afterwards, we have given some time off to rest or enjoy a bath in the Sandoval Lake (no worries, there are no piranhas or other danger animals during the day). Then, we board a canoe to cross the lake to a place where we can better appreciate a beautiful sunset above the lake! At 7 pm, we return to the lodge for dinner while waiting for the moonlight, a suitable time to go watching caimans again! You will have an overnight stay at the Maloka lodge.

Tour Day 3: Amazon Wildlife back to Puerto Maldonado:

After breakfast, we first board a canoe to sail over the Sandoval Lake to later walk back to the checkpoint and from there, we continue sailing the Madre de Dios River by a motorboat towards Puerto Maldonado.

We pick our baggage up in our office and then, you are transferred either to the airport or the coach terminal.

End of our services.

 

Tour Includes

 

Included in the Amazon Wildlife Center 3 days:

  • A professional naturalist tour guide in amazon wildlife center.
  • Motorboat transportation.
  • Entrance fee to the Sandoval Lake Reserve.
  • A professional Cook in amazon.
  • Meals: 2Breakfast, 2 Lunch, 2 Dinner and drinking water (Please note: vegetarian option upon request for no extra cost!).
  • Accommodation: 2 Nights in Maloka lodge sandoval .
  • First aid kit, including a poison extractor, mosquito bite treatment and an antidote for a snake bite.
  • Radio communications.
  • Rubber boots.

Not included in the Amazon Wildlife Center 3 days:

  • Any flight nor airport departure taxes.
  • Vaccination.
  • Breakfast on the first day and Lunch last day.
  • Drinks.
  • Tips to local staff.

What to take with you to the Amazon Wildlife Center:

  • Mosquito repellent (DEET 35 recommended as a MINIMUM!!).
  • Original passport.
  • Small backpack.
  • Long sleeved cotton shirts (preferably green coloured).
  • Long cotton trousers.
  • Cotton long socks (to be put into your trousers).
  • Comfortable walking shoes.
  • Sandals or light shoes.
  • Rain gear (e.g. rain poncho).
  • Sweater (for the beginning of the tour in Andes and the cloud forest only).
  • Swimsuit.
  • Binoculars (we also rent it).
  • Camera and its charger.
  • Plastic bags to be used for clothes and a camera.
  • A hat as a protection against the Sun or rain.
  • Toiletries.
  • Small towel.
  • Toilet paper.
  • Antibacterial gel.
  • Sun cream Hat .
  • Sunglasses.
  • Flashlight (with spare bulb and batteries).
  • A bottled water (1 litre as a minimum).
  • Pocket money (Soles) to buy some beverages and souvenirs as well as to tip.

Every Day Departure to Amazon Wildlife Center.

 

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Amazon Wildlife Center 3 days / 2 nights

Amazon Wildlife Center 3days/2nights – Tambopata Reserve

Amazon Wildlife Center in the Tambopata Macaw Project is a long-term multidisciplinary study of the natural history, conservation and management of large macaws and parrots. The main topics of study include monitoring and observation of macaw nests, increasing survival rates of younger scarlet macaw chicks, documenting patterns of clay lick use by large macaws and other parrots, and documenting and understanding the impact of tourism on macaw clay licks. Since Dr. Donald Brighsmith’s incorporation to the project in 1998, the project has become one of the world’s foremost studies on wild macaws.

Clay licks and macaw conservation – Amazon Wildlife Center.

Amazon Wildlife Center in the Tambopata Macaw project has been working hard to understand the links between the clay lick, nesting, tree phenology (flowering and fruiting) and the movements of parrots in and out of the area. Over a thousand mornings of clay lick observation and literally hundreds of thousands of registrations may be the largest set of parrot data ever assembled. We have come a long way in understanding these interactions and now have a much better idea of what drives the annual life cycles of the macaws and parrots in Tambopata. A summary of our new findings is presented in this paper.

Tourist Information in Amazon Wildlife Center

Amazon Wildlife Ecology and Conservation in Amazon Peru:

This study investigated the behavior of lowland tapir (Tapzrus terrestvis) at a natural mineral lick in the Peruvian Amazon. The objectives of the research were to determine the structure of a lowland tapir population that regularly visits a system of clay licks, to study the social and individual behavior of tapirs during their visits, and to characterize the chemical composition of the clay consumed by tapirs, as well as, to explore the significance of clay licks in the tapir ecology. The study was conducted at the Amazon Wildlife Center located in northeastern Peruvian Amazon Amazon . Lowland tapirs were observed when visiting a large clay lick during the dry season of 1997. Observations were done from an elevated platfom located to one side of the lick. Sex and age of tapirs, as well as die1 pattern of visitation to the clay lick, duration of visits and all tapir behaviors, were recorded. Chemical composition of clay at the lick was determined from samples taken fiom the most used places and compared to samples fiom outside the clay lick in amazon willdife .

The studied tapir population had a higher proportion of adult than immature (young and juvenile) animals. Among adults, sex ratio was biased toward females and the opposite was observed among juveniles. Die1 pattern of clay lick use is mainly nocturnal, with maximum visitation rates around midnight. Tapir visits to the clay licks lasted for around half an hour in average, without differences among sexlage classes. Tapirs spent most of their time at the lick in clay and water ingestion. Adults had higher rates of urination than juveniles. It is suggested that urination at,the  amazon wildlife clay lick has a chemical communicative purpose. Direct vocal communication occurred in mother and young interactions, but it was not observed in other social encounters. Individual flight was the most common anti-predator behavior and was displayed at the arrival of other animals, including other tapirs in amazon wildlife center?.

Clay fiom the lick had higher concentrations  than control samples. It is suggested that potential mineral deficiencies or imbalances in the tapir diet could be the factors that attract tapirs to clay licks. Also, it is suggested that another possible attraction of tapirs to soil consumption is the clay’s buffering action to the toxicity of secondary compounds in the tapir diet. Finally, it is concluded that clay licks are very important components of lowland in amazon wildlife  tapir habitat. Management and conservation plans should have the abundance and distribution of clay licks as important indicators of habitat quality. Further research in pattern of movements and spatial distribution of clay licks, as well as direct assessment of lowland nutrition and geophagy, is suggested in amazon wildlife center.

Tapir and Clay Licks in Amazon Wildlife Center:

Lowland amazon wildlife tapir (Tapirus terrestris) are the largest native terrestrial mammals in the  Amazon region. They belong to one of four surviving species of a taxon which was very success in the past (Eisenberg et al. 1987, Eisenberg 1997). Tapirs are associated to tropical forests and are very important in the structuring and dynamics of their habitats (Fragoso 1997). However, tapirs are threatened to extinction in many places of their range due to over-hunting (Bodmer et al. 1993, 1997) and habitat loss (Bodmer and Brooksy 1997). There has been many advances on the knowledge of lowland tapir ecology during the last decades, particularly on their diet, habitat use and their role as seed dispersers (Bodmer 1 990a, 1991 ; Rodrigues et al. 1993; Salas and Fuller 1996; Salas 1996, Fragoso 1994, 1997). Similar advances exist for the Central American tapir (Terwilliger 1978, Fragoso 1987, Naranjo 1995a,b, Naranjo and Cruz 1998), the mountain tapir (Downer 1996, Acosta et al. 1996) and the Malayan tapir (Williams and Petrides 1980).

In contrast, less is known about tapir behavior. Behavior of lowland tapir has been studied only in captivity 1966, Hunsaker and Hahn 1965, Mahler 1984, Barongi 1993). In the wild, tapirs are very difficult to observe because of their shy nature amazon wildlife .

Feeding ecolow and habitat use: Like Baird’s tapir (Fragoso 1991, Naranjo 1995b), lowland to amazon wildlife  tapir browse preferentially in gaps, especially at lower elevations (Salas, 1996). Lowland tapir browse selectively on as many as 88 species including trees, shrubs and lianas, and at least 33 species of fruits (Salas and Fuller 1996). Fruits account for an average of 33% of lowland tapir diet, which is relatively high for a large non-ruminant ungulate (Bodmer 1990b).:.These animals search actively in monotypic clumps of fruiting Mauritiaflexuosa palms (Bodmer, 1990a). Fmgivory in lowland tapirs is very interesting because, as large non-ruminant herbivores, they are expected to consume large quantities of low quality foods in order to maintain their nutritional requirements (Bodmer 1989).

Lowland amazon wildlife tapir are the only ungulate in the Amazon that fiequently’disperse intact seeds through the digestive tract (Bodmer 1991). Aside from Mauritiaflexuosa, which is dispersed by seed spitting, lowland tapir also disperses seeds of other palms such as Euterpe edulis (Rodrigues at al. 1993) and cimilimla maripa, swallowing entire hits and defecating thousands of viable seeds at latrines located up to 2 km from the nearest palm clump (Fragoso 1994, 1997). Lowland tapir seed dispersal also allows secondary dispersion by rodents who remove seeds defecated by tapirs in latrines (Fragoso 1994, 1997). Secondary dispersion by water can also occur because tapirs frequently submerge parts of the body in rivers or pools when they defecate.

Lowland amzon wildlife tapir and natural clav licks: Tapirs have a craving for salt and can travel long distances to find a salt lick (Eisenberg et al. 1987). Clay licks or salt licks are places in the landscape characterized by high mineral contents (Jones and Hanson 1985). In the Amazon forest, clay licks may occur on some river banks or ancient stream beds (Ernmons and Stark 1979; Lips and Duivenvoorden 1991). Of the four species of tapirs, only Tqirus bairdii has not been reported using mineral licks. This could be due to the sea coastal effect, at least in Barro Colorado Island (Eisenberg, pers. corn.), or limestone dominated landscapes of Central America (Fragoso, pers. corn.).

Conservation Status of Lowland Tapir in Amazon Wildlife Center:

Due to their large size, lowland amazon wildlife  tapir are one of the most important game species in the Amazon. wildlife Populations of lowland tapir in the Peruvian Amazon are being rapidly reduced due to over-hunting. Estimates of tapir harvests in the State of Loreto range from 15,447 to 17,886 individuals per year (Bodmer 1995). Lowliind tapir are more vulnerable to over-hunting than other ungulates in the Amazon because of their low reproductive rate, long generation time and longevity (Bodmer et al. 1997). Aside from hunting, tapirs are threatened by severe habitat loss and fragmentation in most of their range. In spite of its wide distribution, compared to the other three species of the genus, lowland tapir could become locally extinct in many parts of its range if conservation actions are not implemented (Bodmer and Brooks 1997). In fact, local extinctions already occurred in several patches of the Atlantic forest in Brazil (Cullen 1997).

Clay Licks in Amazon Wildlife Center:

At least three clay licks have been found in this area since 1996. The largest one, to whi~h I will refer as the tapir clay lick, is located about 2.5 km north of the lodge. The other two, which I will refer to as spider monkey clay lick and small clay lick respectively, are located to the north of the amazon wildlife tapir clay lick, and are less than 1 km apart. Animal trails . . I are common in this area and appear to connect the clay licks.

I . The tapir clay lick is an open area 16 m long by 12 m wide, and land is excavated up to 1.5 m deep. Four small islands remain from what was a”continuous land. The largest island is 2 m in diameter and 0.75 m high, and the other three are narrower. Some I small bushes and a few small-palms are. the only vegetation on these islands. Except for I the islands, the soil of this clay lick is an exposed light brown clay devoid of vegetation and marked.with numerous foot prints.. Same of the tracks are from deer and peccary, but most are from tapii. -Tracks are ubiquitous in the clay lick, but they seem to be more I concentrated around the bordering cliffs and the well-defined entrance trails. Some of the trees on the cliff have their roots bare of soil, and the basal area of the islands and the cliff itself show marks of continuous excavation by animals. A platform 3 m high built on the south border of the lick allows observation of the animals by researchers and visitors in amazon wildlife .

The spider monkey clay lick is an area of 11.7 m long by 8 m wide, and is located on one side of a small narrow stream. Cliffs in this clay lick are lower and there are no islands. The only vegetation inside the gap is a dead tree partially fallen over the clay lick, which is occasionaly  black spider monkeys to reach the clay. A small hide built on the opposite side of the stream permits observation of the lick.

The small clay lick is located about 200 m form the spider monkey clay lick. It is 8 m long and 4.5 m wide, and is mainly formed by trails 1.5 m deep and 2.5 m wide. Large islands me present and covered by vegetation. Tapir and deer tracks are abundant in the deep trails, and cliffs show teeth marks everywhere. No infrastructure for observation exists at this lick.

Data Collection Tapir Clay Lick:

The tapir clay lick was monitored during the dry seaso’n of 1997, fiom May to July. Observations were done from the platform for periods of 3 to 5 consecutive nights, alternating with diurnal observations far one to two days, Most observations were done from 17:OO to 8:00 with occasional variations, averaging 15 hourslnight. Diurnal observations were done from 8:00 to 16:OO. The spider monkey clay lick was monitored for a complete night and several times during the day. A total of 676 hours were spent at the clay licks; 598 of them (88.46%) at night and the remaining 78 hours (1 1.54%) during day time.

Most nocturnal observations (81%) were done using an  night vision scope. However, on some occasions when visitors were at the platform a tourch ligth was used to allow observation of the animals. All data were recorded by hand.

Tapir Population in Amazon wildlife:

Lowland amazon wildlife tapir population structure has been studied in the northern Peruvian Amazon wildlife (Bodmer et al. 1993). In hunted areas, age structure of tapir populations is biased toward young animals, because many individuals are killed before they reach older ages (Bodmer et al. 1993). Except for these estimates, no other data about population structure in lowland tapirs have been reported. In non-hunted areas, age structure of the population is expected to show larger numbers of older animals, because of their natural longevity. However, population structure is not a species-specific characteristic, but changes depend on whether the population is stable or expanding (Owen-Smith 1988).

Estimations of sex and age composition based on counts at mineral licks have been accurate with some species, such as Dall sheep (Heimer 1973). However, differences in mineral lick use among sexlage classes may exist, making estimations more difficult. Individual identification of animals helps for more accurate estimations. This chapter describes the sex and age composition of the tapir population that visited the clay licks studied at the Manu  amazon Wildlife Center.

Foreword Amazon Rainforest and Amazon Wildlife Center:

The vital importance of the Amazon wildlife rainforest is well known. As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the world, the region has unparalleled biodiversity. It harbours one in 10 known species in the world and one in five of all birds. The Amazon wildlife rainforest supports the highest diversity of plant species on Earth: depending where you are, you can find from 150 to 900 individual trees per hectare. The Amazon is also home to a diverse array of indigenous communities, and its rich natural resources base provides a source of livelihoods for many both within and outside the region to amazon wildlife .

However, this treasure trove of our planet has not escaped the gigantic appetite of unsustainable development. At least 17% of the Amazon forest has been destroyed, and much more is severely threatened as the destruction continues. In the words of the respected Amazon ecologist Dan Nepstad, “The Amazon is a canary in a coalmine for the Earth in Peru.”

The loss of tropical rainforest has a profound and devastating impact on the world because rainforests amazon wildlife are so biologically diverse. The 1,220 new species in this report illustrate the richness of biodiversity found in this the world’s largest rainforest and river basin, and also how much there is still to learn about this incredible biome. Many scientific explorers have ventured deep into the unknown and spectacular reaches of the Amazon and have made significant contributions to increasing our knowledge of Amazonia. However very basic work on the natural history of the Amazon wildlife is still being conducted due to the current lack of knowledge. The surface of the Amazon has only been scratched and there is much that remains unknown to scientists. The scientific world is only just realising what indigenous people in the Amazon wildlife have known for centuries: that many ancestral cultures still alive in the Amazon have a deep knowledge of the riches of the region; and that this knowledge may prove to be essential for the success of future efforts to preserve it the amazon wildlife center.

In the face of increasing human pressure on the planet’s resources, an effective protected area system is vital for conserving ecosystems, habitats and species. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)’s programme of work on protected areas provides a blueprint on how to establish protected areas, how to manage them, how to govern them, and what tools can be used to achieve the planned work.

It charts the way forward in detail and with clear targets. The end result will be protected areas that fulfil their key role of conserving in situ biodiversity of the world. It is a framework for cooperation between governments, donors, NGOs and local people – without such collaboration projects cannot be sustainable over the long term. On this note, the Secretariat of the CBD would like to congratulate for supporting the Latin American Network of Protected Areas  by promoting a regional dialogue and vision for the Amazon wildlife to implement theprogramme of work on protected areas.

Preface the Amazon Wildlife Center:

Nowhere else on Earth is the web of life as tangled and lush as in the Amazon wildlife region. Here, the planet’s largest river basin is a massive, life-giving system for the world’s most extensive and diverse tropical rainforest in Peru. For millennia, indigenous people have relied on the region’s environmental services and natural resources which, as this report shows, we’re still striving to fully comprehend Amazon Wildlife Center.

The Amazon’s  wildlife natural wealth is beyond superlatives. And the significant volume of recent findings we present here shows that we’re still learning about the full extent of its diversity. Between 1999 and 2009, more than 1,200 new species of plants and vertebrates were discovered in the Amazon wildlife region. That’s a rate of one new discovery every three days – before we even consider invertebrates.

This report introduces new species from eight countries plus one overseas territory. Fabulous findings include a surrealistic blind red fish; a coinsized, pink-ringed dart frog; a 4m-long new species of anaconda; a floor-dwelling, blue-fanged tarantula; and a bald parrot. The discoveries add to our appreciation of the immense value of the Amazon wildlife Peru.

Unfortunately, research is revealing that many Amazon wildlife species are under grave threat, even as we unearth them. For instance, the discovery of one of the smallest species of tree porcupine ever recorded was made during wildlife rescue efforts at a hydropower dam site in the Amazon wildlife  Peru.

People have inhabited the Amazon for over 11,000 years. Yet it’s in just the last 50 years that humankind has caused the destruction of at least 17% of the Amazon  wildlife  rainforest. Most of the region remains fairly undisturbed, but the threats to it are considerable. Inappropriate development models, rapid regional economical growth, increasing energy demands, and unsustainable agribusiness market trends are all impacting on the Amazon wildlife  at an exponential rate. Climate change, too, is compounding the problems.

For over 40 years,  has been instrumental in safeguarding the Amazon wildlife . We’ve supported the establishment of iconic protected areas such as Manu National Park, Guiana Amazonian wildlife  Park, Jaú National Park, Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve and Montanhas do Tumucumaque National Park. These have been the starting point for some of the most important conservation efforts in the region, including initiatives such as the Amazon wildlife  Region Protected Areas programme.

Other examples of  conservation efforts in the Amazon wildlife include our work with local communities to establish sustainable fisheries management in the Brazilian Varzeas. We’ve assisted indigenous communities in their battle against oil exploitation contamination in the Amazonian wetlands of northern Peru. And we’ve promoted certified timber production in Peru, Bolivia and Guyana . However, despite this progress, the degradation continues the approach and our partners take to conservation continues to evolve to face increasing threats, and to ensure ever-larger areas are protected.

Today, we’re bringing to bear our experience of more than 40 years of conservation work, under our Living Amazon wildlife initiative. We’re promoting sustainable development across all countries in the Amazon wildlife . We’re building alliances among local people, national and regional authorities and the private sector. And we’re seeking to ensure that the vital environmental and cultural contributions the Amazon wildlife  makes locally, regionally and globally are maintained sustainably, in a way that’s fair to people who live there. The Amazon wildlife  helps to support life as we know it. Now it is in our hands to safeguard the Amazon wildlife, its amazing diversity of species, and the immeasurable services it provides to us all.

Executive summary for Amazon Wildlife Center:

The Amazon wildlife is one of the most diverse regions on Earth. This fact has been supported not least by the extraordinary wealth of new species discovered there between 1999 and 2009. Many of the discoveries have been made in the growing network of protected areas being established in the region. Some 1,200 new species of plants and vertebrates were discovered in the Amazon wildlife biome in this period. This is a greater number than the combined total of new species discovered over a similar 10-year period in other areas of high biological diversity – including Borneo, the Congo Basin and the Eastern Himalayas. The new discoveries illustrate the extent of the amazing biodiversity found in the world’s largest rainforest and river basin. They also show how much there is still to learn about this incredible place. And of course, this report would not be possible without the professionalism and dedication of dozens of local and international scientists and research supporters.

This report celebrates the unique and fascinating species that can be found in the Amazon wildlife a region that spans eight South American countries and one overseas territory, and is home to 30 million people. The report also highlights many vital habitats that face growing pressures as a consequence of unsustainable development. The Amazon wildlife still contains around 83% of its original habitat, but a disastrous combination of threats is increasingly eroding the Amazon’s connectivity. And numerous endemic species are subjected to waves of resource exploitation. After centuries of limited human disturbance, at least 17% of the forests of the Amazon wildlife have been destroyed in just 50 years.

The main cause of this transformation is rapid expansion in regional and global markets for meat, soy and biofuels. These have increased demand for land. Large-scale transportation and energy infrastructure projects, coupled with
poor planning, weak governance and the lack of an integrated vision of sustainable development for the Amazon wildlife are also contributing to deforestation and degradation of forest and freshwater habitats. They’re also increasing pressure on the Amazon’s wildlife natural resources and environmental services, on which millions of people depend.

Increased temperatures and decreased precipitation caused by climate change will exacerbate these trends. They could lead to a ‘tipping point’ where the tropical moist forest ecosystem collapses. The implications of this massive ecosystem shift for biodiversity, global climate and human livelihoods would be profound. The Amazon’s wildlife forests store 90-140 billion tonnes of carbon. Releasing even a portion of this would accelerate global warming significantly. In addition to 30 million people, one in 10 known species on Earth live here. They all depend on the Amazon’s wildlife  resources and services. So do many millions more, in North America and Europe, who are still within the Amazon’s far-reaching climatologic influence.

The Amazon wildlife provides life-giving natural resources and services, and is a source of livelihood for many within and outside the region. But the fate of the region depends on a significant shift in the current way development is embraced by Amazon wildlife  countries. It’s vital that the Amazon wildlife is sustainably managed as one functioning whole. A desire to safeguard the biome’s functionality for the common good must become the core business of the Amazon  wildlife nations.

Responsible stewardship of the Amazon wildlife  is critical, not least because of the role the region plays in the fight against global climate change. In this sense, it is in the long-term self interest of individuals and societies across the globe to keep an ecologically healthy Amazon that maintains its environmental and cultural contribution to local peoples, the countries of the region, and the world, within a framework of social equity, inclusive economic development and global responsibility. Through our Living Amazon initiative, works with national and regional stakeholders from all nine Amazon countries to create the high-level conditions that will enable the conservation and sustainable development of the Amazon wildlife.

As part of our initiative,  together with the  Amazon  wildlife Cooperation Treaty Organisation and the Secretariat for the Convention of Biological Diversity and others are supporting the Latin American Technical Cooperation Network on National Parks, other Protected Areas and amazon Wildlife  in building a conservation vision for the Amazon wildlife . This vision will build on the conservation strategies and protected area systems in each of the Amazon countries. It will help to meet commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity  in particular, its work on protected areas. In the Amazon wildlife, the whole is more than the sum of its parts, and the development of a vision for conservation will help maintain the integrity and functionality of the Amazon wildlife region and its resilience to growing threats, particularly climate change.

Manu Amazon Wildlife Center:

We include here information for those interested in the 2012 Field Guides Manu amazon Wildlife Center, Peru tour:  a general introduction to the tour  a description of the birding areas to be visited on the tour  an abbreviated daily itinerary with some indication of the nature of each dayʼs birding outings Those who register for the tour will be sent this additional material:  an annotated list of the birds recorded on a previous yearʼs Field Guides trip to the area, with comments by guide(s) on notable species or sightings  a detailed information bulletin with important logistical information and answers to questions regarding accommodations, air arrangements, clothing, currency, customs and immigration, documents, health precautions, and personal items  a reference list  a Field Guides checklist for preparing for and keeping track of the birds we see on the tour !after the conclusion of the tour, a list of birds seen on the tour to amazon wildlife.

Southeastern Peru is generally acknowledged as the most species-rich birding region on Earth. Manu Biosphere Reserve, incorporating Manu National Park and a couple of contiguous conservation tracts, is a vast, spellbinding wilderness (the size of Massachusetts!) that protects the entire watershed of the Rio Manu, a 200-mile long tributary of the Rio Madre de Dios, itself a middle-weight Amazonian tributary winding eastward through lowland rainforest in the Department of Madre de Dios. The Reserve and its buffer zone also protect much of the Department of Cusco’s east slope Andean drainage from 14,000 feet in puna grasslands well above tree line down through temperate and subtropical cloud forest right down through the foothills to lowland rainforest. There are precious few places in South America where there is legal protection for a comparably rich transect of undisturbed forest on the diverse east slope of the Andes.

This short tour is designed to focus on the incredibly rich lowland amazon wildlife rainforest of the Manu Biosphere Reserve, thus complementing our MOUNTAINS OF MANU tour, which covers the upper levels of the Reserve. We have selected Manu amazon Wildlife Center as our one-site base for its comfort level, its ease of access, its marvelous network of trails, its special viewing facilities, and its strategic location. With a wonderful grid system of trails and with covered 40-foot boats for river transport, the lodge offers us access to virtually all critical microhabitats within lowland Manu and hence to virtually all species regularly occurring in this rich lowland rainforest. Not only are we close (about 40 minutes) to the famous Blanquillo ccollpa, where hundreds of parrots and large Red-and-green Macaws gather almost daily to ingest the mineralrich clay, but a trail from the lodge buildings takes us (in about an hour) to a forest-interior mineral lick (with a blind) that attracts more secretive forest birds and mammals, occasionally including Brazilian Tapirs, to the same kinds of minerals.

Another trail takes us from our lodgings to a well-constructed canopy platform (with spiral metal staircase) that offers eyeto-eye looks at numerous canopy specialties, from various toucans and cotingas to mixed-species flocks that move right through “our tree.” And twenty minutes downriver is a trail to yet another, even higher and larger, canopy platform (also accessed by a secure metal staircase) that offers incredible vistas and a different set of birds. Weʼll bird river sandbars, hidden cocha lakes, some enormous stands of bamboo, transitional forest, and some wonderful tall terra firme forest to amazon wildlife .

The official lodge bird list now stands at a whopping 580 species, among them an incredible number of classic Amazonian species and many regional specialties, including Orinoco Goose, Razor-billed Curassow, Starred Wood-Quail, Pale-winged Trumpeter, Blue-headed Macaw (rare), Amazonian Parrotlet (the “parrot without a name”, rare), Amazonian Pygmy-Owl, Ocellated Poorwill, Purus and Bluish-fronted jacamars, Scarlet-hooded Barbet (rare), Curl-crested Aracari, Rufous-headed Woodpecker (rare), Peruvian Recurvebill (rare), Sclaterʼs Antwren, Manu, White-lined, Goeldiʼs, Whitethroated, and Hairy-crested antbirds, Rufous-fronted Antthrush, Ash-throated Gnateater (rare), Band-tailed Manakin, White-cheeked Tody-Tyrant (rare), Dull-capped Attila, White-winged Shrike-Tanager, and Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak. And thatʼs not to mention the long list of mammals, from Giant Otter and White-lipped Peccary to 13 species of primates and even the elusive Jaguar. Seeing many of these species takes time and patience; thatʼs why we are devoting eight days to the lowlands. Even so, we wonʼt see all of these in such a short time, but we can assure you of a trip full of wonderful views of hundreds of wonderful critters in a wilderness setting of impressive proportions.

To avoid last-minute surprises due to an unreliable air service to Boca Manu that often results in flight cancellations, we have elected to travel overland, then downriver, to reach Manu amazon Wildlife Center. Last year our group enjoyed the diversion of habitats and the diversity of birds this detour enabled. This way, we may add Cock-of-the-rock to our list, and we have added some exciting surprises like Crimson-bellied Woodpecker, Hazel-fronted Pygmy-Tyrant, Chestnutbreasted Mountain-Finch, Creamy-crested Spinetail, Bearded Mountaineer, Rusty-fronted Canastero, and Andean Tinamou (among many others) to the list of species, none of which we see at Manu amazon Wildlife Center. From the port at Atalaya, weʼll travel by covered motorized dugout for about 7-8 hours down the Rio Alto Madre de Dios (weʼve never seen so many Fasciated Tiger-Herons—anywhere) and the Rio Madre de Dios (“Mother of God River”) to reach our lodge, set just back from the riverbank in a nicely planted clearing with tall rainforest immediately behind it. Manu amazon  Wildlife Center offers substantial comfort for a remote Amazonian lodge, from cold drinks (and plenty of pure drinking water) to individual bungalows with private baths with flush toilets and hot water for showering in spacious tiled showers. The rooms are screened, but there are also individual mosquito nets for each bed. A lovely dining area (with tasty, varied, healthy food) and a separate bar and lounge area (with both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages always available) are connected to all the bungalows by graveled walkways. Weʼll sleep to the sounds of the Amazon wildlife rainforest.

About the Physical Requirements & Pace in amzon wildlife :

On our visit to one of the richest birding areas in the world, we will want to maximize the quality of our experience. In lowland Amazon wildlife (where itʼs warm and humid), this means early starts that allow us to be in the field shortly after dawn, when activity is at its peak. On a typical day we’ll start with an early breakfast (4:30 or 5:00) and bird along trails for the morning, returning to our lodge for lunch (12:30) and a break during the heat of the day, then going back out in the afternoon. This means that while we will usually be covering only two to four miles in a morning, you may be on your feet for six hours. There will be several exceptions for example, the boat trip to visit the macaw lick. And some trails are accessed by boat to start them. Along the trails we’ll typically move at a snail’s pace, walking quietly, watching the ground for tinamous, listening for the slightest growl that could betray the presence of an army ant swarm with its attendant followers or a shower of petals or seeds from the canopy that could alert us to the presence of a flock of parrots or a troop of monkeys. We will use song playback to call in some fabulous skulkers that might otherwise go unseen. And, in the process, we’ll do considerable standing around just watching. Trails that are muddy and/or hilly in places will be covered slowly. In a few situations, for instance to reach a ccollpa or tower early, we will move steadily along level trails at a pace of around two miles an hour for a half hour. Our fastest pace will likely be on the way back to lunch! The trails around  are excellent, but that does not mean that we will not regularly encounter tree falls or other new impediments that will require a small amount of agility, just as does getting in and out of the boat daily or crossing the wide log bridge with hand railing to the main trail network. The canopy towers will require knees that can handle 140 to 220 steps. This is the “rainforest” and rain can happen at any time, resulting in muddy trail conditions, so rubber boots are likely to be the main footwear weʼll use on most trails rainforest amazon wildlife .

About the Birding Areas the amazon wildlife:

Lowland rainforest All of the lowland amazon wildlife rainforest we’ll bird lies in the remote Department of Madre de Dios, among the richest areas for birds in western Amazonia. Here we will visit a variety of habitats, from riverine sandbars and bamboo stands (of a giant species of the genus Guadua) to old oxbow lakes or cochas and well-drained terra firme forest to amazon willife .

Manu Wildlife Center, on a high bank above the Rio Madre de Dios, is in a small clearing punctuated by some big, bromeliad-clad trees (where oropendulas, caciques, Chestnut-fronted Macaws, and occasionally Chestnut-eared Aracaris nest). The dawn chorus includes duetting Gray-necked Wood-Rails; the feeders, vervains, and heliconias in the gardens attract hermits and other hummingbirds; and Amazonian Pygmy-Owl calls from the clearing edge. It is a convenient two minutes from the lodge to the boat landing, our gateway to a number of alluring trails, especially to forest with big bamboo stands. This habitat supports such bamboo specialists as Pavonine Cuckoo (active after a rainy period), Rufous-headed Woodpecker, Red-billed Scythebill, Peruvian Recurvebill (rare), Bamboo Antshrike, Ornate Antwren (rare), White-lined, Manu, Yellow-breasted Warbling-, and Striated antbirds, Dusky-tailed and Large-headed flatbills, and Flammulated Bamboo-Tyrant (rare). The nearby Antthrush Trail is named for the very local Rufous-fronted Antthrush, endemic to southeastern Peru, for which the trail can be good, albeit increasingly scarce and more often heard than seen in amazon wildlife .

Besides the clearing at Manu Wildlife Center, a grid network of trails passes through beautiful, tall transition forest as well as to moriche palms. Only fifteen minutes from the lodge is the canopy platform. Reached by a sturdy metal spiral staircase, the platform itself is about 100-feet up, within the spreading branches of an emergent Ceiba tree. On past tours here, we have had marvelous looks at everything from nesting Double-toothed Kites (in our tree!), a male Pavonine Quetzal that we called into view, and a long list of fruit-eating species (including both guans, both big toucans, Ivory-billed and Curl-crested aracaris, and Spangled and Purple-throated cotingas) to some incredibly-difficult-to-see-well-from-theground species that associate with mixed flocks, e.g., Sclaterʼs Antwren (in direct comparison with Pygmy Antwren!) and Chestnut-shouldered Antwren and Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak.

Along other trails, huge fruiting fig trees (ojes) attract Blue-throated Piping- and Spixʼs guans in addition to impressive numbers of monkeys and the occasional Tayra. In fact, monkeys can be encountered throughout, from large mixed troops of bold Black Spiders, Red Howlers, Common Squirrel Monkeys, and Brown Capuchins to furtive Saddleback and ornate Emperor tamarins scurrying through the canopy. Dusk could bring a singing Ocellated Poorwill, Great Potoo, and Crested Owl, the latter often right from the clearing in amazon wildlife .

Trails along hilly ridges take us from the lodge through rich terra firme forest and to the interior ccollpa called the Tapir Lick. This gorgeous forest offers our best chances for such terra firme species as Bartlettʼs and Variegated tinamous, Blue-backed Manakin, and such “obligate” army ant followers as Sooty, White-throated, and Hairy-crested antbirds and the rare Rufous-vented Ground-Cuckoo. The lick itself attracts shy forest species, from Black-capped and Red-crowned parakeets and Dusky-billed Parrotlet to curassows, guans, and the huge Brazilian Tapir to amazon wildlife .

Travel along the Madre de Dios is not only cool and relaxing, it offers good birding. Pied Lapwings, Collared Plovers, Large-billed Terns, and Sand-colored  abound on the sandbars, punctuated occasionally by a Sunbittern or a family group of Horned Screamers or Orinoco Geese. Raptors perch on emergent dead branches, and here and there macaws are stationed in noble trees overhanging the riverbank. At any moment a Red Howler Monkey could quietly descend the red cut bank to drink from a calm backwater or a Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle could sail overhead. White Caimans bask at the edge on sunny days, and with lots of luck (and constant scanning) we could encounter even a Jaguar in amazon wildlife .

Weʼll also visit two oxbow lakes, or cochas, where weʼll search the edges from a stable, floating catamaran platform. Possibilities here include Rufescent Tiger-Heron, Green Ibis, Horned Screamer, Muscovy Duck, close Hoatzins, Graybreasted Crake, Green-and-rufous and American Pygmy kingfishers, Purus Jacamar, Black-billed Seed-Finch, and Paleeyed Blackbird, as well as a playful troop of Giant Otters to amazon wildlife .

Overlooking to amazon wildlife  the end of one of the cochas is the 150-foot-high Camungo canopy platform, also reached by sturdy metal staircase and offering dramatic views over cocha edge and nearby forest treetops. The platform itself, nestled among the branches of another giant Ceiba that emerges above the canopy, is big and steady, with good views in all directions. Itʼs the perfect place to scan the distant treetops for raptors, cotingas, toucans, tanagers, parrots, and puffbirds. Weʼve pulled Amazonian Pygmy-Owls, Curl-crested Aracaris, and Lemon-throated Barbets right into “our tree” here and marveled at the constant turnover of species that use all the canopy perches, including a seemingly constant parade of colorful tanagers.

But one of the areaʼs foremost features is relative proximity to the Blanquillo Macaw Lick. From our lodge, weʼre only 40 minutes by river from one of the most thrilling of avian phenomena an active riverside ccollpa, where hundreds of psittacids of up to a dozen species come to ingest the minerals seeping from the clay cliff face (assuming weather and predators are not keeping them away). The Madre de Dios has recently changed course and our blind is currently located on an island just across a backwater from the ccollpa. At the Blanquillo lick, shortly after dawn, parrots gathering by the scores in the trees above the bank begin to peel off to line the vegetation overhanging the cliff in amazon wildlife.

Then, as their confidence seems to grow, Blue-headed Parrots and other smaller psittacids fly down to the vertical clay face. All the while large Amazon parrots and dozens of macaws (usually Red-and-green but sometimes also Scarlet and Blue-and-yellow) are building their numbers in the trees above. Ultimately, after much circling to investigate, they too begin to venture down onto the open bank to cling and consume a beakful or two of the mineral-rich clay, a vital but mysterious part of their diet, now thought to aid in digestion of certain toxic fruits. The constant coming and going of these colorful birds, their sudden eruptions from the bank to wheel in the soft morning light, the din of their incessant vocalizations all combine to produce an unforgettable effect. Indeed, for some it constitutes the highlight of the trip in amazon wildlife.







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