Welcome to tambopata Amazon Wildlife Madre de Dios bio diversity capitol of Peru this guide book is an introduction to the wildlife Peru South East Peru rainforest Amazon wildlife to first time visitor the rainforest can be a little overwhelming the lush greens the mucous sounds the stifling heat aid of this book ,you can mutilating but hopefully with the aid of this book you can learn some of the rainforest is hidden secret you will walk around of life to be found here.
It has been difficult to know what to leave out of this guide with over 900 birds species 1,500 different butterflies 180 mammals 180 reptiles and amphibian of insects and countless hundreds of thousands of insects Tambopata Amazon Peru is a naturalist is paradise and it would be impossible to include all it is inhabitants in one guide I have tried however to include most of the commonly up in here seen species as well as one of my favorites so that when you encounter something region one of the trails or from a boat on a lake ,you will be able to look it up in here and read about it .
Whether your preconceived image of the rainforest the discovery channel it cannot inadequately prepare you for a first the rich smells of the forest Amazon Wildlife or the sounds that come from every directions the vegetation strives upwards and outwards sprawling everything the air almost drinkable with humidity and every creature seems to be hiding from view the astounding diversity of the rainforest Amazon Peru is not obvious at unlike the Africa Savannah there are no huge herds of grazing herbivores roaming about ,for this reason many people leave the jungle Peru disappointed and feel cheated that they have seen so little ,but the real magic of the rainforest Trip is the small the insects are the forest Wildlife is herds of herbivores and the diversity of these in Amazon Wildlife outdoes anywhere else in the world half the world is creatures inhabit rainforests half on the world rainforest is here in the Amazon Peru Basin


The majority of people in the region of Madre de Dios are not Indigenous they are predominantly settlers from other areas who came down from the mountains seeking work at the end of the nineteenth century the first stops to colonizing the area were made when Carlos Fitzcarrald opened up river access between the Urubamba and Manu rivers for the purpose of extracting rubber latex from the forest. However, this was a costly way to transport it and not until a road was built between Puno and Stiller (on the upper Tambopata Amazon Peru) in 1906 did Madre de Dios become an important rubber producer. Unfortunately this was a short-lived prosperity and the ‘rubber boom in Madre de Dios ended suddenly smuggled seeds of rubber trees out of Peru and set up plantations in Asia Thousands of rubber workers subsequently left the area the rubber tappers were not the first people to try to colonies the region however. In the fifteenth century the Inca chief Tupa Yupanqui tried and failed to establish himself in the jungle wildlife thwarted by the fierce Tucana tribe, who forced him back into the mountains. The Tacana are one of the four linguistic families of indigenous Indians in Madre de Dios (the others being the Harakmbut ) and are believed to have inhabited the area for many thousands of years. Their descendants, the eseeja are still to be found living along the Tambopata and Madre de Dios rivers. Most have been contacted by white man but there are still small groups of indigenous Indians living their ancient nomadic lifestyles in the forests of Manu, Piedras and Tahuamanu. The appearance of the Conquistador in the sixteenth century meant more invaders into the region, this time looking for gold and the lost city of Paititi in amazon wildlife wildlife Peru (a city believed to be constructed entirely of gold), The Conquistador found the jungle amazon Peru very Un welcoming. The heat, insects, disease and of course the fierce Tacama meant that many expeditions trips into the ‘green hell’ never returned One Spaniard did return, however. Juan Alvarez Maldonado carne -back from his exploration of the Madre de Dios River 1569 with tales of fierce disease and blood-sucking beasties. The provincial capital was named Puerto Maldonado in his memory the Spaniards may not have found the legendary Paititi but gold was the entire region ever since discovered in Madre de Dios as early as 1558 And people have been searching for it over It was not until the mid-1970 is gold extraction became increases today of thousands immigrants work extracting gold from rivers and open east mines in the region although many of these are only present during the dry season (April – October ) when river levels are low enough for easy dredging of the alluvia deposit However, changes to the area did not only start when man appeared in the rainforest amazon travel of South America. The continent has had a torrid and fascinating history of major ecological interest one hundred and twenty million years ago, South America’s forests were very different to present day Amazon wildlife Peru Looking around we would be surrounded by huge tree ferns (Cycads) dwarfed by even bigger Redwood and Cyprus trees and, of course, giant reptiles would be roaming the area. Up to this point in history, South America was part of a super-continent called Gondwanaland which included Africa, Australia, Antarctica and India. This land mass then began to break up and South America drifted west on its own. Isolated from other continent it was free to evolve separately and uniquely and after the mass extinction of the dinosaurs, mammals such as armadillos, sloths (including the now extinct giant ground sloth), anteaters and opossums appeared, along with many other now extinct groups. Until the lee Age


By definition Tropical Rainforests Amazon Wildlife are hot and wet and this fact plays a large part in explaining why they are so special biologically in this amazon Travel , as I shall discuss later. But first, why are they hot and wet the sun shines most constantly and directly on the equator, lessening in intensity as you travel to amazon wildlife further north or south. The two Tropics Rainforest Amazon Wildlife of Cancer and Capricorn mark the boundaries of the tropics and al tropical rainforests world-wide in amazon Peru. occur within these boundaries. The heat from the sun an average of 27°C y car round in Amazonia Peru warms the suria.ee of the earth and the air above it. This warm air rises taking with it water vapor (evaporated from the surfaces of leaves, rivers and lakes). As the moisture laden air rises it also cools and clouds build up until they become loo heavy with water and it rains. You might think it rains a lot where you live, especially if you’re English, but here in the Amazon Wildlife basin an average of 2,000 mm (79 inches / 2 metros) of rain falls each year, with some places getting as much as three metros, raining two hundred and fifty days out of three hundred and sixty five It is a common misconception that the rain falls constantly and equally throughout the year in fact the Tambopata rainforest amazon wildlife has distinct wet and dry seasons this phenomenon is very important to its inhabitants. Trees lend to flower in the dry season and fruit in the wet. In Tambopata amazon Peru the wet season start in .October/November and finishes in March/April The forest experiences dramatic changes between these months. The river rises Ion meters or more wilt the onset of the first downpours bringing huge tree-falls down-river. Migrants from the north arrive lo escape the harsh winters of temperate regions one example boing the beautiful swallow- tailed kilo, which arrives in large numbers from North America in mid Octobers the forest amazon wildlife seems even more lush and green at this time and hums with increased activity, with parts of it completely flooded. The weather is marginally cooler (an average of 2°C less than in the dry season) and huge electrical storms roll 1 over the tree-tops. The Andes Mountains play an important role in the water cycle that governs the volume of water that falls in the Amazon wildlife Basin. They act as a giant wall lo the west of the rainforest Peru wildlife that little rain crosses, creating a vast desert west of the mountains. The combination of this and the presence of the Brazilian and Guianan shields lo the south and north of the basin accounts for the huge volume of rainwater flowing out of the two hundred mile-wide mouth of the Amazon Peru river. It is four times the amount of the next most voluminous river the-Congo. In fact the Madeira River (into which both the Tambopata amazon Peru and Madre de Dios rivers empty via the Beni in Bolivia) is only the second largest tributary of the Amazon wildlife yet the sixth most voluminous river in the world. NB. In Tambopata amazon rainforest Peru during the dry season there are short periods of very cold weather. These climatic anomalies are known as Friajes locally and are due to cold winds that originate in Southern Chile. The temperature in the amazon wildlife at night can drop to 9°C, which is a real shock lo the inhabitants. AI1 the amazon wildlife activity slows down during these periods, which usually last no more than a few days, temperatures soon rise to normal levels and activity levels resume. A sunny day following a friaje is usually a really good time to see .Caiman They lie out on the sandbars by the river warming their chilled bodies.


Why is the Amazon Wildlife Rainforest so rich in species diversity This is rather a complex question and in fairness we can only offer theories to explain the incredibly numbers of different life-forms in Amazonia Peru , as no one can provide a definitive answer But here goes plants form the basic structure of the rainforest amazon (indeed most terrestrial ecosystems), from the smallest herb to the tallest emergent tree everything happens on, in, around, under or about them. The climate of Amazonia wildlife provides a perfect environment for plant Growth no drought period, a period of extreme just uninterrupted hot, humid, rainy weather. This in itself is enough to justify a rich diversity of life a hugely productive fast growth environment encourages an extraordinary diversity of life amazon from an evolutionary point of view the diversity of the life rainforest amazon wildlife comes about in a number of different ways. One excellent example that illustrates how diversity arises through evolution is the relationship between herbivorous insects and trees. The climate of the tropics of the amazon Peru . Not only encourages plant growth but also favors insect reproduction period lo keep a check on insect numbers, but insects to run riot and strip trees of their leaves but rainforest amazon Peru trees have evolved complicated chemical defense compounds lo deter the myriad of insects that might her wise eat their leaves. Each family of plants (sometimes each species) rely on a different concoction of chemicals in their tissues varying amounts of different alkaloids, cyanides, tannins and toxic amino acids deter herbivores. As well as these chemical defenses, plants also use mechanical deterrents such as spines or tiny hairs on the leaf surface, thorns on the bark, sticky latex in the trunk or oven crystallized Silicon, like liny glass particles embedded in the woody parts of the tree. Some trees oven use insects to protect them like having a colony of ants living in specially developed chambers at the leaf nodes or in their hollow trunks. These ant vicious protect the homes attacking any herbivorous organism that foolish enough to land in the host tree. Of the amazon It is a wonder then that herbivorous insects can eat any ,leaves at all but they have evolved alongside their plant foods and have developed equally complex strategies to overcome these defense compounds. They do this by specializing in breaking down one set of defense compounds, using enzymes that shatter the toxic molecules rendering them harmless and digestible. The enzymes that a particular insect uses against certain toxins are no use against another species in the amazon wildlife compounds and thus, that insect is restricted to feeding only on that species of tree. This acts as a selection pressure on that tree to evolve other defense compounds. As a result the new compounds and or mechanisms may be different enough for the tree to evolve into a new species. The insects the amazon Peru left without a food source must in turn develop new Enzymes to cope with the tree s compounds – and the Evolutionary treadmill goes on. In the rainforest amazon wildlife, when this process of specialization and Selection pressure is repeated in millions of generations (some Insects can go through twelve generations a year) over a period of one hundred million years the number of species of both herbivorous insects and trees inevitably increases. The huge number of plant species in a tropical rainforest amazon wildlife which the insects themselves helped to engender, in turn creates an even larger opportunity for more insect species. Not just those that feed on the leaves but those that prey on the leaf-caters or parasitize them pollinate the flowers live under the bark bore into the seeds or feed on the fruits. Of course this does not only apply to the insects (although they are by far the most numerous organisms in the rainforest amazon Peru wildlife), mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish have an ever greater variety of food sources to exploit those that feed on the insectivores and herbivores diversify to exploit the ever increasing different prey items evolution, as described is a wondrous thing and the results of selection pressure and speciation are on display in all their complex glory in the tropical rainforest to amazon wildlife . How diverse is the rainforest amazon Peru wildlife numerous studies have been done in amazon Peru wildlife to determine how many species reside there for example an entomologist studied ants in the canopy and on one occasion found 43 different species living in a single tree this number is roughly equal to all the species of ants found in the British Isles. Over 1,200 species of butterfly have been found here a world record for the size of area studied. The number of different bird species to be found around any of the lodges in Tambopata Amazon Wildlife is about 600 – there are only 700 species in the whole of North America. Only recently has the canopy of the rainforest amazon Peru been studied in any detail-(mainly due to its inaccessibility) and since insects have been studied and collected from the branches the estimated number of insect species world-wide has soared from two to thirty million

Rainforest Structure of the Amazon wildlife :

A mass of vegetation clambering on top of and all and it self-vines everywhere trees of every shape and size and massive leafed palms drooping overhead. There does not seem to be any structural order lo rainforest Amazon Wildlife vegetation at all but there are poorly defined layers within the confusion. When flying over Tambopata Rainforest Amazon on arrival from Cuzco you are greeted weather permitting, with a spectacular view from the plane of a carpet of green treetops spreading beneath you, only broken by snaking lea coloured rivers. This carpet or roof of treetops is the rainforest canopy and in Tambopata it is approximately thirty-two metros above the ground. It is by no means an unbroken blanket of leaves indeed visitors are often surprised how much light actually reaches the lower levels of the under-story. The high winds, associated with friajes in amazon wildlife Peru is violent electric storms mean that there are many light gaps within the forest amazon Peru (Many species actually rely on ibis fact for survival). Emergent trees reach heights of fifty meters in our area and many of the large buttressed and huge trunked trees visible from the trails to rainforest amazon wildlife are in fact examples of emergent.
The under-story or Lower canopy is largely comprised of palms and small trees and generally reaches no higher than twenty-five meters. The herbaceous layer at ground level forms the final living strata below which there is a thin covering of -humus/dead organic matter covering the ground. Beneath the layer of dead leaves lies a fascinating paradox all this rich tangle of life stands on only a few inches of fertile soil Ninety-three percent of all nutrients in the rainforest are locked-up within the living organisms that inhabit it beneath the crust of seemingly inadequate soil often lie meters of inert clay. Everything I have written is no more than a basic generalization and simplifies a very complex and varied subject within the region of Madre de Dios in amazon wildlife Peru there are several different
HABITAT :Types ranging from the cloud forests of the Andean foothills lo the west to tropical savannah grasslands and pampas to the east on the border with Bolivia. However, most visitors to
Tambopata will spend all their time in the


Around the lodges of the Tambopata and Madre de Dios rivers so it is this habitat that this guide focuses on trees and many other plants in the rainforest Amazon wildlife seem to be involved in a constant struggle upwards’ to- get at that most essential resource – sunlight. Many plants have evolved very ingenious ways to get there first and slay there uninhibited. One way of ensuring a quick passage lo the canopy and being nearer to the sun is to use an established tree to get there, eliminating much of the lime needed to grow a trunk of your own and once there lo spread out quickly and freely


Do this very successfully many starting out as shrubs then latching on to a nearby tree and climbing up to the canopy literally thousands of vines and lianas (rope-like vines that drape themselves all over their hosts) can occupy a few trees in a small area sometimes when a tree dies it is partially held up by its vines. For years afterwards. Other vines like the climbing .Aroids(Iilies) and philodendroms (cheese-plants) are bole or trunk climbers, latching themselves firmly onto the trunks of large trees climbing above the herbaceous layer while still.in contact with the earth below.


Are largely epiphytic, living high up in the canopy and having no contact with the ground they attach themselves to branches with a tangled network of roots that form an epiphytic mat trapping dead organic matter for the uptake of nutrients. You might think that bromeliads would struggle in the conditions that they grow in – so far from the ground,-which many other plants rely on for food and water, but they overcome this problem in an ingenious way. Their leaves spiral out from the stem forming a conical roseate in which rainwater collects. This adaptation not only ensures bromeliads are well watered but also supplements their poor nutrient intake as dead organic matter also collects in their leaf reservoirs. Pitcher plants have taken this remarkable adaptation one step further. Their specifically designed pitchers of fluid actually attract insects to their death enzymes then break down the trapped organisms which the plant then feeds on a high quota of vines and epiphytes on a tree will sometimes inhibit growth as they weigh it down and steal light from their host. So some trees have evolved ways of stopping or inhibiting vine growth.


Tree is also known as the tourist tree and is one of my favorites. About twice a year this beautiful green giant sheds its reddish-brown papery bark to reveal a smooth
green skin underneath (much like a sunburnt gringo). It does this to shed off any climbers or young vines with its bark it is often the only tree in our area that is relatively free from climbing invaders.
THE TANCARANA AMAZON WILDLIFE :Tree grows a hollow trunk and Limbs specifically to provide a home- for its personal gardeners and protectors – its resident colony of fire ants In return for a safe
home, the ants clear an area a meter radius around the tree is base keeping it void of all vines and other plants. They also attack viciously (reminding anyone who’d forgotten why they’re called fire ants) anything foolish enough to land on or touch the tree.


The Shiualiuaca or ironwood tree is a goliath of Tambopata amazon Peru it huge rusty coloured mottled trunk and buttresses are unmistakable. Its wood is very hard and dense (ironwood is an apt name) and actually sinks in water the Shamans (medicine men) of the area treat the Shihuahuaco, with respects as it is a very sacred tree with many spiritual links. When the Shaman goes into a hallucinogenic trance he will often visit the spirit of the ironwood to learn about his patient and to find an herbal cure it once spoke to a shaman about his experiences and lie told me it was like watching a movie go. Through your brain pictures of plants of the amazon wildlife and animal spirits and strange sounds – all to be interpreted for the individual in need of a cure.

The Lapuna amazon wildlife :Is another giant of the rainforest Peru it has light grey bark with vertical black stripes and largo buttressed roots. Lupuna is also a good spirit of the forest in fact it is known as the mother spirit and a delightful story is told by the local Indians which go something like this a young couple very much in love (nearly all stories star this way in Peru) lived on a farm in the northern part of South America. They lived peacefully and happily until a passing spirit spied the girl and decided that he had to have her the spirit whisked her away to a nearby shack and tried seducing her but her love was too strong for the spirit and she fought him often evil this made the evil spirit very angry and his revenge was swift and evil he stole the young girl’s object of love – her husband and took him to a far off land never to be seen again. Not satisfied with this, he then turned on the girl and changed her into a plump little bird with stumpy wings and a chicken’s head, called
Tinamou of The Amazon Wildlife :It was all too much for the Tinamou. She wondered
about for days and days feeling very lonely sorry for her sell waddling along one day she bumped into the mother spirit Lapuna, who took pity on her. The spirit was a very powerful spirit and created the Amazon rainforest and all its varied inhabitants to keep her company. The evil spirit heard of this deed and saw all the amazing creatures roaming about in their new home. He was furious and took a huge axe from his hut to go and confront
Lupuna. When the mother spirit was felled she crashed to the ground and her trunk formed the mighty Amazon River her branches formed all the tributaries and her buttress roots became the delta To this day the lonely Tinamou can still be heard calling out for her lover Where are you It is the only bird that can be heard all through the day and night. As for the evil spirit well that’s another story.

The Eco-nut or Brazil Nut Tree of the Amazon Wildlife .

This tree is one of my favorites. It is another large emergent with a huge dark brown, coarsely ridged bole. Most people will have eaten Brazil nuts at some point (especially at Christmas) but until I carne to the Neo tropics of the Amazon Peru I did not realize that they came from a huge rainforest tree in cannonball-sized shells The brazil nut has an amazing life story which starts with the humble Agouti. This pig-like rodent opens the hard outer casing to release them when nuts are falling in January / February. There are far too many for the Agouti to eat, so it buries what it cannot eat for a Inter date. If the Agouti should be eaten or forget a few, then the already planted nuts have a good chance of growing into new. brazil nut trees. Madre de Dios is the only region in Peru where Brazil grows. Efforts to cultivate them in plantations in other areas have all failed, and there are good reasons for this. Brazil nut trees flower for only a couple of days a year and are pollinated exclusively by a few orchid bee species. If these orchid bees are not present then the tree will not fruit. The bees themselves need specific orchid species to ensure their own survival and orchids are very sensitive plants, growing poorly in disturbed or secondary’ forest. So Brazil Nuts are harvested from primary rainforest and, processed in Maldonado. They are a good source of income for many people for at least part of the year. By buying them you are helping in a small way to preserve primary forest. Make a point of buying some from the cheerful ladies at the airport the amazing Amazon Wildlife Peru.

The Fig Tree really is amazing of the Amazon Wildlife .

Many of them are stranglers and actually start life as vines A fig is eaten by a bird or monkey and deposited’ up in the crown of another tree where it germinates and proceeds to grow. it sends down a network of tendrils around the trunk of its host tree which on contact with the ground, start to link up and swell Gradually the fig’s crown ‘steals’ light from the host tree and the ladder-like ‘trunk’ of the fig constricts its growth eventually resulting in the host’s demise. As the original tree rots away, consumed by termites and fungi, all that is left is the strangler standing on its own, and often hollow in the middle the story docs not end here, however, because the humble fig is not a fru.it at all. It is a flower, or rather a cluster of flowers with a gourd-like covering The fig contains both male and female flowers and sterile gall flowers, however even though the males are right next to the females it is impossible for them to pollinate from inside the same fig, due to the fact that the female flowers mature earlier than the males each fig species has its little helpers to get over this problem and they come in the form of liny fig wasps. The female wasp (family Agaomidae) crawls in through a liny hole in the and lays her eggs in the sterile gall flowers. Males hatch out first and inseminate the female wasps inside their eggs. The males then die and the females hatch out (carrying the next generation of wasps already) and crawl over mature male flowers inside the fig picking up pollen. They then exit the fig and quickly (within a day or no) find a nearby fig to crawl into and lay their eggs, walking over mature female flowers inside the process and pollinating them. Once the female wasp has laid her eggs in the gall flowers she dies, but she has ensured the next generation of wasps and figs as well. However, there are cheats that utilize the figs – wasps that lay their eggs inside the fig without even entering it.

Opportunists in the Amazon Peru:

Along the rivers and in forest amazon Peru is clearings / light gaps are several opportunist plants and trees that, rather than scramble with everything else for light in the canopy, wait for a gap to appear and take advantage of it quickly. Cecropias are one of the most obvious and most common trees in the rainforest wildlife . They have very pale grey-(almost white) bark and large, umbrella-like hand-shaped leaves and are found everywhere in Tambopata. Cecropias produce hundreds of seeds each year that can lie dormant for a couple of years in the soil. As soon as a gap in the forest appears either as a result of a tree-fall or human disturbance they colonies the area and grow quickly (2,5m/year). Like the Tangarana tree they also employ ants (azteca sp.) to clear vines from their branches and hollow trunks. They have definitely benefited from human activity in the region. Clearance for agriculture has resulted in Cccropins being present in large numbers, especially adjacent to the rivers where disturbance has been most extensive. Another plant that everyone will encounter here is the Hclicouia.’ This close relative of the banana is another plant that enjoys a lot of sunlight in disturbed areas, especially along the rainforest amazon wildlife clearings. Its red and yellow bracts (the flowers are hidden within) are a favorite nectar source for the many species of humming birds that inhabit the rainforest. The most abundant species in the amazon wildlife is the parrot’s beak or lobster claw’ Hclicouia due to the shape of its bracts. The Balsa tree is found along the rivers and streams in Tambopata amazon wildlife and is quite often associated with the Cecropia. It too likes disturbed areas it has pale bark like the Cecropia but its leaves are heart shaped and it does not have ants living inside its branches. The locals use the Balsa’s buoyant wood to make rafts (bolsa means raft in Peru) on which they transport produce to market.

Orchids of The amazon wildlife .

Orchids are often included in people’s images of the rainforest however, many species of this very diverse group are epiphytic living high in the branches of other trees. There are many different kinds but you tend not to see them unless you find a fresh tree-fall and the orchid happens to be in flower (some species flower for only a couple of days a year, or oven loss frequently).
Palms of the Amazon Wildlife .One thing that struck me when first encountered a Neo tropical rainforest Amazon wildlife was the abundance of palms always associated palm trees with Caribbean beaches and cocktails, however, they are common he re and very important lo the local people. The Aguajepalm, (Mauritia) can be found along of the amazon wildlife find most lakes and is often the dominant tree type in swamps (hence the local name for such swamps Aguajales) its reddish, scaled fruits are collected by the locals and either eaten raw or made into a drink mixed with lots of sugar or used as a flavoring for ice-cream. The fruit is’ an important source of Vitamin A for people in the region (said to have three times as much as carrots). The Pona, or Walking Palm (Socratea ) is another common species found mainly in the wetter partially flooded parts of the forest it has long, spiny, spindly stilt roots that prop up its thin trunk and aid it in the uptake of nutrients and water of the amazon wildlife.
The huacrapona of amazon wildlife .palm is a very distinctive tree because of its unique swollen midriff. This bulge is probably an adaptation to combat high winds as it is soft and pulpy inside allowing it to bend it is also known as the penis palm due to its phallic prop roots. Local people use the bulge in the trunk to make a temporary canoe. They hollow out the pulpy interior leaving the hard outer bark, which is a perfect canoe shape the resulting craft will last for about three months before becoming saturated with water and sinking. Once chopped down and left for about a month, the rest of the trunk can then be carefully split open to reveal o network of maggot tunnels. These beetle larvae make their home in the fallen palm tree and can be extracted and eaten raw, although they are much nicer fried oil with a touch of salt. They are about two inches long and the local name for them is Suri

Legumes of the Amazon Wildlife:

a) Aguaje palm (Mauritia sp.)
b) Pona palm (Socratea sp.)
c) lluacrapona palm (Iriartea sp.)
Legumes of the amazon wildlife .
The most species rich tree family in our rainforest amazon wildlife is growing many legumes this huge group includes the mimosa, acacias, beans, peas, many vines, lianas and herbs as well. They are often characterized by having small fern- like leaves that look feathery and delicate from the ground, in stark contrast to the large waxy leaves of other tree groups do not be surprised, when you ask your guide to identify a tree, if they respond with another legume They are not fobbing you off it’s probably true, they are very abundant.


Mentioned earlier about the chemical warfare between plants and herbivores and there is a wonderful resource for us humans as a result of this. The chemicals that plants produce for their defense are being used extensively all over the world in the treatment of illnesses and disease. Many drugs available over the counter today originated in the tropics, for example. Although Quinine is manufactured artificially now, it originally carne from the bark of a Peruvian rainforest to amazon wildlife tree and has saved the lives of countless malaria sufferers. Pharmaceutical research is being done at the moment to find out what other cures lie hidden in the plants. Perhaps the best way to find out about cures and treatments in the Amazon Wildlife rainforest is to ask the Shamans (medicine men) of the indigenous tribes. Their astounding accumulated knowledge of medicinal plants and procedures is vanishing, with the most recent generations taking little interest in ancient ways however, some work is being done in conjunction with Shamans to understand a little of what we are so ignorant of and hopefully that knowledge will not be lost forever less than one percent of tropical plants have been tested thoroughly for the existence of us else lies waiting to be founding the amazon wildlife.

Some medicinal plants of the Amazon Wildlife .

Scientific name Local name
Ipiper sp (piperaceac
Medicinal uses By chewing a leaf, or sucking on crushed leaves, the mouth is numbed and the locals use it to treat toothache and mouth ulcers.
Costus caña caña :Medicinal uses Drink the fresh juice (sap) of the stalk (heated) for diaharrea intestinal complaints stomach pain, measles whooping cough head-aches and as a tonic. Also bathe with the fresh stalks to reduce fever.
3philodendron I tininga
(English name – Cheese plant) Medicinal use: Mix the sap of the growing tip’ with lemon juice and
apply on the sting of the Isula ant or viper bite.

ficus Oje (English name) Medicinal use: Use the fresh white – resin to treat intestinal parasites.
Medicinal use: Use the roots to treat rheumatism.
The humble Papaya is a surprisingly useful plant with many
medicinal applications:
1. Drink the resin of the unripe fruit for intestinal parasites
or eat the toasted seeds.
2. Apply scrapings of the root to destroy tooth cavities.
3. Eat young leaves in a salad.
4. Crush the mature leaves and use as soap.
5. Drink a tea made with the flowers of the male plant for
coughs, asthma and bronchitis.
There is also a common species of fungus called Dead man is finger
(a black finger-Like fungus that grows on dead wood) that,
il heated, produces a milky liquid that can be used in the
treatment of car infections.


Insects are by far the most abundant and diverse group of creatures in the tropical rainforest to amazon wildlife they are pollinators parasites; recyclers farmers protectors predator builder wood-borers mimics; assassins singers aerial acrobats burrowers and everyone visiting Tambopata amazon wildlife will encounter many different kinds we still know very little about most inset ecology or indeed how many species even exist.

Butterflies to Amazon Wildlife :

Definitely visit Madre de Dios just for the butterflies nowhere in the world can you see more different species in any locality of a similar size They come in all shapes and sizes, ranging from huge neon blue Morphos to tiny metallic spotted Riodinids. Over 1,200 species have been recorded here and on a sunny day (especially after rain) it sometimes seems as though all 1,200 are flitting about along the trails to amazon rainforest wildlife .

The butterfly families of Madre de Dios in Amazon Wildlife :

1. Swalluwtails (family Papilionidac) ,Some of the most striking butterflies of the region are swallowtails so named beeau.se of the tail-like extensions of the hind-wings However many swallowtails ironically don’t have long swallow Tails The most commonly observed butterflies in this family are in Fact mainly jet-black with varying amounts of green and/or red on the upper surfaces of the wings. They are large butterflies and can be seen flying low in the forest interior or feeding on sunlit mud banks with other butterflies along the river the Amazon Wildlife

Nymphalids (family Nymphalidae) to amazon wildlife :

This is the largest of neo-tropical families and a very varied group of butterflies indeed in Europe familiar names such as the Admirals and Torloiseshells are Nymphalids. In the neo-tropics many of the dead leaf butterflies (when resting with closed wings they resemble a fallen leaf are Nymphalids as well as at least one species that when it lands, wings closed, it resembles a living green leaf Look closely at any Nymphalid and you will notice that they only have two pairs of walking legs The front pair are pressed against the thorax, and for this reason are termed brush-fooled butterflies (though Nymphalids are not the only brush-footed family).

3. Skippers (family Hespiridae ) to amazon wildlife :

All Skippers are strong flyers with fat often hairy bodies and large heads but their unique field characteristic is their antennae skippers have antennae that terminate in a prominent hook and this separates them from all other diurnal butterflies and moths. They are some of the fastest flyers and should one fly close you can often hear the flapping wing-beats.

4 metalmarks (familyRiodinidae ) to mazon Wildlife :

These small butterflies are called metalmarks because nearly all of them have bright metallic colouring on the upper or under surfaces of the wing. Most Riodinids, when disturbed along the trails will
fly quickly and directly ahead and then seemingly disappear This is because they often ‘perch’ on the undersides of leaves of the tree to rainforest amazon wildlife .

4 Blue morphos (family morphidae ) in Amazon Wildlife :

By far the most sought after and spectacular butterflies of the rainforest, the Morphs of Amazonia Wildlife have to be seen to be believed. They are some of the largest butterflies around and their shining blue wings make them unmistakable beware though the native people of Madre de Dios believe that inside each Morpho is a mischievous spirit that entices unwary travellers into the forest and when the Morpho pursuer is far enough from the trail the butterflies will suddenly close its wings and vanish into the undergrowth. (The cryptic coloration of the underside of its wings blending in perfectly with the leaf-litter or tree trunks) , A Morphos blue is very special from a scientific point of view as well. The upper surface of the wing is comprised of thousands of liny scales that overlap each other, like a snake or lizard skin each scale is ridged with over twenty layer of Christmas-tree-like structures, which reflect and diffract light hitting the wing at any angle, and are so small that twenty-thousands of them lined up would still Only measure one millimeter Such intricate structure makes up the very bluest of blues in the animal kingdom
Family Of teh Butteflies in the Amazon Wildlife :These delicate butterflies are entirely-forest interior butterflies characterized by their often transparent wings (the front wing being longer than the hind) and apparently lazy wing-beats they often have orange, black , yellow coloration and all are distasteful to insectivorous vertebrates. (Hcliconidnc)

Heliconias or Passion-flovver butterfues (family Hcliconidne) .Unique to the Neo tropics these butterflies are very similar to many Heliconias with orange , yellow ,black coloring (although Heliconias tend to have proportionately larger heads) Distasteful to predatory vertebrates both benefit from the easily recognizable don’t eat me coloration – a system called Mullein mimicry birds such as the many flycatchers know to avoid the distinctive coloring of both families. This family is one of the most frequently encountered along the trails often flying low and slowly through the forest, alighting on flowers and the upper surfaces of leaves Ovols and other Satyrids (famiiy Satyridae) .The majority of the are Satyrids easily recognizable by having one or more dots or eyes on the underside of the wing. They are mostly small and brown with a couple of notable exceptions owl
butterflies (subfamily Bnassolidae) are active at dawn and dusk, a behavior known as crepuscular’ and are frequently encountered on walks in the forest wildlife. They generally perch on the vertical trunks of trees no more than three meters above the ground (generally less than two meters) and are called owl butterflies because of their single long owl-like eye on the underside of each hind-wing They are often as big as the Mophos although there are a couple of much smaller species. Another common satyrid the little opaque winged Pierella.This mainly brownish butterfly has a largo pink dot on each hind wing and often flies in front of you along the trails at ground level.
Hairstreaks (family lycaenidae). Mostly very small butterflies called hairstreaks because of their thin hair-like extensions to the hind-wing. These extensions act as a False head giving a would-be predator. (Lizard or frog) the impression that the end with the most obvious antennae must be the head often beautifully patterned and delicately painted these butterflies also seem to disappear on the trail ahead as they too tend to perch on the undersi.de of leaves when flushed (see Riodinidae). 10 whites and yellows /sulphurs (family pieridae) unless it is pouring with rain when you travel to your lodge you can’t fail to notice the largo clouds of white and yellow butterflies that gather on the muddy banks of the river. They are often nearly all Pierids and they feed on the salts and minerals present in the mud. (Many male butterflies need specifies mineral salts for the production of sexual gametes) .Whereas both are distasteful to predators, Pierids are not. However some whites are not while at all. They have evolved the orange, yellow and black coloration of a distasteful butterfly even though they do not contain distasteful compounds. The warning colors are enough to put off insectivores and the pretending Pierids can live a hassle-free existence This type of mimicry is called Batesian mimicry Pierids are not the only Batesian mimics of Heliconias .Species in other families such as the Nymphalidae and adopt the warning colorations of unpalatable families the Latin names of butterfly families and sub-families –are constantly -revised as more is learned about the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), therefore, family names given above may
differ in other publications


Another example of mimicry is to be found in some day-flying moths. Many brightly coloured moths have adopted the clear -wings shape and Flight patterns of specific wasp insectivorous vertebrates in the Rainforest generally wasps because of their potent sting this way these moths moths are pretty much left alone the green Urania moths is one of the most commonly observed day-flying moths all over Amazonia and is my .personal favorite often mistaken for a swallow -tail butterfly it has mainly black for wings with vertical shiny green stripes. The hind-wing is mainly white with black stripes and two long while swallow- tail extension it is often seen in sunny open areas (such as lodge clearings) and on river banks what is the difference between butterflies and moths .Moths generally have fatter, hairier bodies than butterflies but, as I have just mentioned, there is a whole family of butterflies with fat hairy bodies (the Skipper )so this is not a good distinguishing feature The only clear –cut observable difference is their antennae. On a moth the antennae are either a feathered and tapered straight and thin why do moths exhibit kamikaze behavior near candles 1 have often sat by a lit candle at night in the tropics amazed at how many moths (and other insects) manage to burn to, a crisp in such a small flame It is generally accepted (although unproven) that moths navigate at night by a chosen light star ) when they fly , they keep at a constant angle to that light to get where they want to go however if that light is not light years but only a few meters away then by flying constantly to it they inevitable fly in concentric circle around it and eventually poof.


The term bug is used by many people to describe any creepy-crawly but there are true bugs (the Hemiptera) and herc.in the rainforest the most obvious and one the most abundant of the bugs are the cicadas. These musicians of the day and night can be heard singing from the trees all over the tropics amazon wildlife. They are sap-suckers the nymphal stage or grub, tunnels underground sucking the juices from the roots of plants and the adults suck the juices from stems and leaves above the surface one species of Cicada builds tall clay lowers on the ground before it emerges to shed its skin and become an adult. These phallic lowers littler the forest floor and seem to be an advertisement to any would-be grub eater that can dig, that below lies a tasty meal Nobody really knows why these nymphs build the towers but it could have something to do with the fact that they burrow in clay before they emerge. Sitting at the bottom of a clay burrow (which is watertight) when it rains presents a likelihood of being drowned so building the day up over the burrow provides a rain-proof chamber n which to develop before emerging as an adult. But this does not explain why nothing seem to dig the nymphs up and feast on what appears to be an easy meal. Another bizarre rainforest bug is the Caiman (or peanut) –head bug (Fulgora laternaria). The strange shaped head extension was once thought to be luminescent (hence its other name – lantern fly) by biologists, but it probably functions lo deter predators by its uncanny resemblance lo a lizard. The bug has a number of other defense mechanisms to ensure it is not eaten. It is well camouflaged with an all lover mottled grey coloring. It can release a really foul smelling dour if disturbed and if further harassed it unleashes its other secret deterrent – a pair of huge wings with a large eye-spot on each. If that is not enough to deter a would-be predator it bangs its head against the tree it is sitting on (not out of frustration) which produces a loud drumming sound.
Assassin Bugs of the Amazon Wildlife : are so called because of the way they wait patiently for an insect to pass by then pounce on them , stabbing their victims a beak like proboscis some species will wait outside the entrance of stingless bee colonies picking off individuals as they enter or leave the nest in the rainforest Amazon Wildlife .

Grasshoppers, Katydids and Crickets of the Amazon Wildlife.

A leaf moving sedately along a branch almost definitely indicates the presence of a Katydid -most of these grasshoppers are superb mimics. Some Katydids pretend to be healthy green leaves full of toxic compounds others mimic dead leaves blending in perfectly with this leaf-litter. Many actually go to the extent of mimicking insect damage and fungal growth on the surface of their ‘leaves. Crickets are more often heard than seen .They accompany the cicadas on tropical nights, rubbing their legs rhythmically against specially adapted patches on their abdomens. Combined with frogs the three make a delightful rainforest orchestral symphony, if sometimes a little cacophonous.

Dragonflies and damselflies of the Amazon Wildlife :

Dragonflies of the amazon wildlife are abundant in the rainforest especially around swamps of the amazon wildlife (aguajales), streams and oxbow lakes. They are robust torpedo shaped insects that zip around at great speeds catching insects in midair. Damselflies are generally much slower and more slender than dragonflies and tend to land with their wings closed (whereas dragons perch with wings open). By far the largest of the damselflies is the helicopter damsel it has a long (up to 15cm) thin body and transparent wings with yellow or while tips. The reason for its name becomes apparent when it lakes off. The wings do actually rotate (forwards and backwards not above it) and the pale tips on the wings make for a wonderful aerial display in amazon wildlife .

Army ants of the Amazon Wildlife :

An army ant swarm is an unforgettable sight. These voracious hunters live a nomadic Lifestyle and ‘march’ on mass through the forest eating everything in their path that moves. Army ants generality do not kill anything larger than a tarantula or scorpion, but when they are on the move nothing stands in their way it is for this reason that on encountering an army ant column the forest Amazon Wildlife often seems to burst into Life with birdcalls insectivorous birds follow the head of the swarm, not eating the ants but picking off any fleeing arthropods As many as fifty bird species can gather at the front of a large swarm ant birds ant shrikes ant thrushes ant wrens wood creepers and many others are commonly associated with the ants army ants feed primary on other insect colonies overpowering them with superior numbers. They ‘nest’ in bivouacs – a structure made up of the ants themselves – generally in a hollow tree or underground here is one egg-laying queen to each colony and if she perishes the colony dies with her, or has to join forces with another colony in the amazon wildlife .


These ant are a rainforest success story they have overcome plant defense compounds in such a way that very few tree species are safe they live in subterranean nests often spanning large areas of the forest the Amazon Wildlife and containing up to eight million (many of which never leave the nest) worked ants foray out from the nest and eat off sections of leaf to bring back to the colony, however the ants do not eat the leaves they chew them up (having cleaned first )then defeated on the mushy pulp and add it to their fungal gardens one species of fungus only is associated with each ant species and it is the fungus that the ants feed on the fungus cannot grow without the ant rectal fluid and the ants cannot survive without the fungus real mutualism Leafcutter ants are unique to the Neo tropics and the sight of thousands of leaf segments moving along in columns held aloft by tiny ants is an unforgettable one for most visitors.
Termites break down about 80 to 90% of all dead organic matter him rainforest amazon wildlife without them it would not exist.

Beetles of Amazon Wildlife .

Ants are the most numerous insects in the amazon wildlife but beetles are by far the most diverse in the rainforest amazon wildlife dung beetles brushed beetles wood borer beetles rhino beetles longhorn beetles, tiger weevils rove beetles and harlequin beetles all make up the huge order coleopteran the two largest species only the male rhino beetle has the long rhino horn and this he uses in duels with other males, competing for feeding sites and females. Another spectacular beetle is the Harlequin. Its large size, beautiful coloration of black, yellow and red and extremely long curved antennae are unmistakable. The males also have incredibly long front legs, which they use when mating (also useful for climbing trees) of the amazon wildlife .

Orchid or Euglossine Bees to Amazon Wildlife .

As the name would suggest mole orchid bees are orchid pollinators and each species will visit a very specific set of orchids for their nectar. The orchids rely on the bees for pollination and some go to great Lengths to make sure the right bees are attracted (some orchids will actually mimic, visually and chemically, a female bee species) and leave with an adequate amount of pollen to pass on to the female flower females orchid bees are also important pollinators of many other flowers of rainforest trees to amazon wildlife such as the brazil nut.
Termiles to amazon wildlife it is a well-known fact that termites eat wood, but they are able to do so only because their intestines contain myriads of microscopic organism – that help to break down the otherwise indigestible cellulose in all wood. The termites that everyone will encounter in the rainforest and can be distinguished from ant nets by the brown tunnels going from the ground to the nest on the exposed trunk of the nest tree these tunnels and the nest are made of a substance called carton a mixture of these arboreal nests are equipped with a potent chemical defense which they squirt at predator such as anteaters. The shape of soldier’s head adapted so that it can spray its sticky chemicals is such that it cannot feed itself and has to be fed by the workers of the colony also tamandu) live in the amazon wildlife .

Mantids and slick inseets of the Amazon Wildlife.

Both praying mantis and stick insects are superb leaf and twig mimics. Generally only when they move or fly are they observed. Praying mantis are so called because their front legs are clasped in front of their body in continuous prayer However, they are used for a much deadlier pursuit than communing with the insect god A mantis will stand absolutely still on a branch for hours waiting for an insect meal to walk by, then quickly snatch up the insect with those two front legs (which are barbed for grip) and bring it up to its scissor-like mouth parts. Stick insects or walking sticks are common in the rainforest Amazon Wildlife (although difficult to find) unlike the mantis they are herbivorous each kind specializing in eating only a few species of plant in the amazon wildlife .

Wasps of the Amazon Wildlife:

There is a huge variety of wasps in the forest Amazon Wildlife ranging from the tiniest of ant parasites and fig wasps to huge tarantula hunters. Most are non-aggressive however, and very beautiful, but nests of the many species of paper wasps should be respected they often guard their nests with ferocity and should you bump into one or unknowingly chop down branch or leaf containing a nest, the wasps will attack un mass and sting relentlessly until you have run a sufficient distance from it.

Ants in the Amazon Wildlife :

Have already mentioned army and fire ants. (Associated with the Tangarana tree) both of which should be given a wide berth but one particular ant the giant tropical ant of the rainforest amazon wildlife (paraponcra sp.) has a sting as potent as any wasp this ‘bullet ant’ is a solitary forager and can be as much as an inch long, living in colonial nests. Individuals bring back paralyzed prey to the nest to be fed upon by the developing larvae and other members of the colony the Rainforest Amazon Wildlife.

Mosquitoes the Amazon Wildlife :

Yes, there are lots of mosses in the rainforest Amazon Wildlife although during the day they prefer the cover of the trees and tend not to be found in lodge clearings The Anopheles mosquito is present here and is capable of carrying the malarial parasite. However, the risk of contracting malaria is extremely low in Tambopata Rainforest Amazon Wildlife , although preventative measures (long sleeves, trousers, plenty of repellent and prophylactic pills) should be taken. On leaving the rainforest, the only reminder of the abundance of mosquitoes for most people will be the itchy lumps on exposed skin.

Sandflies in the Amazon Wildlife :

These tiny blood-sucking flies (also known as no-see-ns) are often more numerous than mosquitoes. Their bites tend to leave a tiny bloodspot in the center of a reddened lump and they too can carry a
nasty disease is a Leprosy-like disease carried by these little white fly an initial sign of infection is a wound appearing (often several weeks after the bite) on the skin that weeps (it can also be dry) and generally grows in size treatment, however, is one hundred percent effective if it is diagnosed early enough in the Rainfores Amazon Wildlife .

Spiders Amazon Wildlife .

the film did not do much for people’s opinion of spiders (especially in the tropics) Yes all spiders are poisonous the need their venom to paralyze their insect prey very few worldwide are harmful to humans the sight of the big hairy ones especially produce violent reactions in many people but Tarantulas in the Neo tropics are very docile wary spiders that live in burrows during the day and hunt at night one common species here is the pink-toed tarantula. A big black hairy spider with delicate little pink feet they sit at the mouth of their burrows at night and wo.il for their insect prey to walk by. Nobody has ever died from the bite of a tarantula (I don’t know of anyone who has even been bitten by one).

Chiggers the Amazon Wildlife :

These are microscopic miles that are found in all lodge clearings (especially in long grass) they are the most common cause of itchy lumps in the Neo tropics and especially like to bile ankles and around the waist however they do not carry any nasty diseases and the only danger lo the host is that over-itching may result in infection .


Most people visiting the rainforest Amazon Wildlife will not see snake (consider yourself lick if you do ) they tend to be very wary of humans and will vacate the trail if they sense you coming many are nocturnal will vacate the trail if they sense you coining. Many are nocturnal, lying hidden and motionless during the day. However, there are many different species in Tambopata Rainforest Amazon Wildlife , the most famous of which being the giant Anaconda. This non-venomous constrictor can reach lengths of about ten meters (although such snakes are rare) and are generally found in or around water, such as lakes, rivers and swamps they feed on vertebra crushing them with muscular coils, preventing the animal from breathing the film anaconda portrays these snakes as indiscriminate killers with lightning fast movements able to leap many meters out of the water .in fact this is far from the truth large Anaconda need only feed once every few months and sit party submerged in water waiting for a peccary deer or Agouti to get close enough to strike .they do strike with immense speed (a characteristic of most snakes ) but can only do so within a few feet their huge bulk being a very restrictive factor Anacondas may be the heaviest snakes in the world but they are not the longest the reticulated python of Asia is longer, growing to nearly forty feet. Another spectacular boa is the Emerald Tree Boa this beautiful snake grows to about two meters in length and generally coils around vines during the day. It is bright green and largely arboreal, and when coiled up on a branch or vine is almost impossible to spot.

Poisonous snakes in the Amazon Wildlife.

These are o major worry for many visitors to the rainforest Amazon Wildlife , but the four types of poisonous snakes in Tambopata Amazon Wildlife do not pose a real threat to anyone walking the trails with a guide.
Pit-vipers the Amazon Wildlife .
Responsible for most deaths by snakebite all over the world there are three types of pit-viper in Tambopata. Easily recognizable by their long triangle-shaped heads and pronounced nook, all three should be treated as killers and kept at a respectable distance The pits in a pit viper are hyper-sensitive holes along the side of the head that help he snakes to detect warm-blooded. Prey, such as rodents and birds.


Are a family of pit-vipers responsible for the majority of snakebite fatalities in the Neo tropics ,Quito aggressive snakes, in some parts of South America, they are known as trees- minutes because this is the time it takes for you to die after a bite. However, this is not the whole story as not all bites from a fer-de-lance will be fatal and you stand a good chance of surviving if anti-venom treatment is available. They generally do not exceed have meters in length and feed primarily on small mammals.
The BUSHMASTER is the largest pit-viper in the world, reaching lengths of over three meters very cryptically coloured it is genera active only at night, which is probably a good thing because it’s local
name (Shushupe) means silent death and it is able to strike over longer distance than any other snake. A very impressive snake indeed The green Tree Viper is the last in our trio of pit-vipers and probably the least encountered, due to its small size (less than one metro) and green coloring.

Coral Snakes Amazon Wildlife :

snakes – are the final group of lethal snakes in our area and there are four species here. They belong to the family epidae which includes the African mambas and cobras and extremely venomous they are all smallish (2 to 4 feet) snakes with bright coloured stripes of red ,black and yellow bright clouring serves as warning to everyone and is copied by many species of non-poisonous snakes and one caterpillar Apart from the snakes mentioned above most snakes in amazon belong to the harmless family culabridae of which there are many species and should you encounter a snake it is likely to be colubrid

Lizards of the Amazon Wildlife .

You cannot fail to see lizards on even the shortest stay in the forest all lodge clearings have their quota of bright green and brown jungle that live in burrows in the ground on sunny days, they dart about al break-neck speed catching flies and other insects a curious characteristic of the jungle runner is that the young have green heads and brown bodies whereas adults have brown front halves green bodies and-bluish tails The biggest lizard in South America is also to be found here 1,5- meter long Taegu is a striking lizard with bold black and yellowish patterning on its back. It terrestrial lizard that is fond of eggs and looks much like the African monitor lizard. Anotis are small greenish or brown lizards that live a mainly arboreal the male of one species has a beautiful orange throat that it extends in display when competing for females with other males.

Caimans of the Amazon Wildlife.

Caimans are close relatives of alligators and differ from crocodiles in that they have broader shorter heads and when their mouths are closed the upper fourth tooth is not visible. (It is in crocodiles) There are four species here but should you go out in a boat al night (they are all nocturnal) you will probably encounter only one of them – the spectacled or common caiman is abundant in the Tambopata Amazon Wildlife and Madre de Dibs rivers growing to about 2,5 meres these fish eating crocodilians lie in the water at the edges of the rivers waiting for prey to swim by the long Black Caiman is much rarer than its paler cousin it grows to six meres and is by far the largest Caiman in South America. However, it has suffered greatly from hunting pressures and long specimens are generally only present in the more secluded oxbow lakes. In other areas of Amazonia they have been hunted out altogether and are now included in the endangered species during the day Caimans can be observed sunning themselves on sandbars (especially after a cold weather spell) or they hide under leaf litter and in the reeds until nightfall in the An Wildlife .


Some of the most beautiful and intriguing frogs of the world are to be found in south America rainforest Amazon Wildlife at night the forest is alive with the calls of the frogs these highly variable amphibians are often bright green in color with buggy eyes (being mostly nocturnal)and slipper shiny skin they all have enlarged toes with suction pads on the underside for clinging to waxy leaves and stems .Many species of tree frogs spend their entire lives in the canopy laying their eggs in water that collects between the leaves of epiphytic bromeliads Poison dart frogs are gaudily coloured (often neon yellow , reds, blues and green) highly toxic frogs that some are captured by indigenous tribes to extract the highly poisonous excretions from the skin of the frogs these toxins are then used on the tips of arrows and blowpipe darts to hunt with the common genus in tambopata Amazon Wildlife (Epipidobales) the wide-Mouth or Horned frog (Ccratophys camilla) is the size of a tennis ball and a voracious predator. It commonly cats other frogs and even small snakes another giant amphibian is the marine toad (Bufo marinas). This very vocal warty skinned toad can Inflate its body lo appear even larger when threatened it also secretes a foul tasting chemical from its skin when molested it is very common in Amazon Wildlife clearings and its nocturnal song resembles that of a peke-peke riverboat the dead Leaf toad (Bufo typhonians) really lives up to its name it has flanges of skin on its head and a pale line down its back that make it a perfect dead leaf mimic. In the rainy season frog voices at night out-compete even the cicadas and crickets lying under my mosquito net one night in Tambopata Amazon Wildlife I could have sworn I was surrounded by sheep the bleating was cacophonous venturing outside in a semiconscious slate there were of course no sheep to be seen but the trail by my hut had flooded and thousands of little sheep frogs were bleating away merrily this is not an isolal.cd incident however frog calls have, on more than one occasion fooled me into thinking there was a rare bird about with a call l had not heard before or a troop of monkeys nearby so listen out after rains and swamps for the amazing array of frog songs that can-be heard in the Tambopata rainforest Amazon Wildlife.


The rainforest’s Amazon Wildlife rivers, lakes and streams are rich in fish life there are more species of fish in the Amazon Wildlife and its tributaries than there are in the entire Atlantic ocean the most famous (again thanks to Hollywood) Amazonian wildlife fish is undoubtedly the these vicious looking film stars are portrayed as ruthless killers, stripping flesh from a carcass in seconds. In reality, piranhas only exhibit feeding frenzies when water Levels are really low and fish are concentrated in high numbers. In the largo oxbow lakes it is possible to catch piranhas from your canoe and then go for a refreshing swim in the piranha infested waters probably the most dangerous fish in the rivers is actually an eel the long (2 metro long) electric is quite common in the area and as it can emit a charge of 650 volts, you can see why local people often quite gingerly check their fishing nets is a tiny catfish has a nasty little habit its normal lifestyle is to attach itself with spines inside the gills of larger fish however, should you unknowingly urinate in the river while swimming the candiru has been known to swim up the urethral opening and lodge itself there instead nice But as long as you don’t pee in the water there’s nothing to worry about well perhaps the fresh water stingray I’m not pulling your log. There really is an Amazonian Wildlife stingray it is light brown with dark brown spots and likes the river bottoms. To be stung by one you actually have to stop on it and for most visitors, who generally swim from canoes in oxbow lakes, this situation will not arise last but by no means least, are the many forms of catfish that Inhabit the rivers and lakes you are lucky enough to eat the huge .
Catfish Doncella steamed in bamboo, a local specialty called paca then you will know why I saved the catfish till last they are bottom feeders with long sensory barbells that help them locate their food (invertebrates, crustaceans etc.) and all are extremely good eating during the dry season most inhabitants along the river fish for catfish either with long baited lines suspended by a slick in the center of the river, or with hand-lines from the riverbanks. Some river people use nets also, often spanning them across small quebradas (streams).


Mammal viewing in the Amazon Wildlife rainforest is rather difficult ,there are no herds of wildebeest sweeping majestically across the plaints but with a little patience most visitors will not leave tambopata Amazon wildlife without seeing at one mammals many mammals including the cats are nocturnal and are very occasionally encounter in the early hours of the morning or at dusk Most have an excellent sense of small hearing and sight and ,Disappear very quickly when herd of humans approach The most frequently observed mammals in the rainforest are one of the eight species of monkey found here .The local names for all the mammals illustrated given in brackets after the English name

Monkeys of the Amazon Wildlife :

At 05.30 in the morning, many visitors to the rainforest are not quite themselves and on hearing the dawn call of the red howler monkey for the time have been known to hide under their sheets thinking the Amazon Wildlife was surrounded by jaguars .The red howler’s howl sounds something like very strong wine in the trees (heard from a distance) but more like somebody clearing their throat of phlegm for long periods it can carry for many hundreds of me trees over the tree-tops and is a territorial declaration made by the dominant male of the troop. Red Howlers are the largest monkeys in Tambopata Amazon Wildlife weighing Up to ten kilograms and as their name implies have a beautiful covering of orange / red hair Monkeys with prehensile (gripping) tails, often termed the fifth limb are unique to the Neo tropic and howlers are one of the families that have them their tails are used not for swinging but often for suspending their en tire body weight while they reach with both hands lo feed on young leaves and fruits the next largest monkeys are the two species of Capuchin found here.
The Brown Capuchinof the Amazon Wildlife, like the Howler, is also equipped with a prehensile tail which they carry coiled up behind them when moving through the trees they are some of the noisiest primates when on the move their largo size means that when they leap through the treetops they disturb a lot of branches, crashing through the canopy. Should you be lucky enough to surprise a troop of brown’s feeding the dominant – male will often make an incredible fuss above your head shaking branches, grimacing, barking and/sometimes even throwing twigs and foodstuffs down on you

The White Fronted Capuchin the Amazon Wildlife .

Tends to be less common in our area and is they are very beautiful monkeys with yellowish hair and long prehensile tails Squirrcl Monkeys Amazon Wildlife. These much smaller, greenish monkeys frequently travel in troops of fifty or more individuals, and when encountered it can seem like it is raining monkeys, with little black and white faced primates leaping about all over the under-story Squirrel monkeys however, do not look at all like squirrels. They are slender acrobatic monkeys with very long thin non-prehensile, black-tipped tails.
Dusky Titi Monkeys Amazon Wildlife . Are more often heard than seen The male and female in the group (consisting usually of no more than five or six individuals) perform a whooping, chattering duet a common sound at all the lodges they are small very fuzzy reddish-brown monkeys with a long furry non-prehensile tail that has a creamy tip if you are lucky enough to see them, you will generally be able to watch them for quite some time as they are inquisitive monkeys that do not move off in a hurry the commonest monkey in Tambopata Amazon Wildlife is the tiny Tamarin of amazon wildlife . Usually to be found in groups of ten lo twenty individuals they loop about in the forest under-story squeaking and whistling, clinging comically on to vertical trunks and running up and down vines. They are very vocal monkeys, keeping in constant communication, which makes them fairly easy to locate (if you know what lo listen for) they are wonderful monkeys to watch their acrobatic antics and funny noises make them one of my favorites the only truly nocturnal monkey in the world – the Night Monkey in the amazon wildlife . Is to be found here. Another small primate owl monkeys, hide in dense vegetation during the day and only venture out at dusk on a circuit of their territory foraging for fruits, flowers and insects. Their large eyes and roundish heads give them their owl-like appearance, and are perfectly suited to a nocturnal life. They are common in secondary or disturbed forests and can be seen at the edges of most forest amazon Wildlife clearings.
b1ack Spider Monkeys in the amazon wildlife are the least encountered of all the monkeys in all but one of the tambopata amazon wildlife (Rainforest tambopata wildlife the Collpa Lodge) it is thought that spider monkeys are very sensitive lo hunting pressures and as most of the area’s lodges have, in the recent past been subject to extensive local hunting this could-account for the lack of spider monkeys in the area. However they are present in comparatively largo numbers on the upper Tambopata amazon Wildlife river and perhaps as more rainforest becomes protected (as with the creation of the Bahuaja sonene National Park) they will start to appear again further down river common woolly monkeys are also present on the upper Tambopata Amazon Wildlife/Candamo rivers recent reports of sightings further downriver have yet to be confirmed.


Next lo monkeys the most often seen group of mammals are the numerous rodents that inhabit the forest in Amazon Wildlife the Bromw Agotiti (see brazilia nuts) is a common inhabitant of all types of forest and is occasionally observed in the early morning in amazon wildlife clearings. They are large rodents with no obvious tail and are dark brown in colour when surprised alone trail they often emit a series of loud barking sounds and alarm they are ground dwellers foraging for fruits and nuts, which they eat Ruther like a squirrel, sat up on their hind legs and holding it with their front paws The Paca is the nocturnal equivalent of the Agouti and is very Similar in behavior slightly larger than its day-time relative it has reddish brown fur with prominent while spots all the way down back and sides. Unfortunately (for the Paca) its meat is very tasty and is not as common in The area as it used to be duo to over-hunting.There are three squirrel species in Tambopata Amazon Wildlife One, the Southern Amazonia red squirret Amazon Wildlife: is bright orange red with the biggest bushiest ever seen. It behaves much like its . European cousins shining up and down trees and feeding on fruit and nuts. The other two species are dull brown and smaller than the red squirrel and less often encountered. There are two species of tree porcupines here as well living entirely arboreal lives. both are covered with it long spines (which they are able to fire into the face of an aggressor) and have long, prehensile tails. The largest rodent in the world in fact it looks like a giant guinea pig, is also common in Tambopata Amazon Wildlife the Capybara is a river-dwelling rodent often weighing over sixty kilograms. They are usually seen in family groups (like most rodents they have many young at any one time) along the banks of the rivers. Although along the lower Tambopata Amazon Wildlife and Madre de Dios rivers they have adopted a largely nocturnal lifestyle due lo hunting pressure When startled these creatures tend to emit a loud shriek or yelp and crash into the river in submerge and. swing away of the Amazon Wildlife .

Amazon Wildlife Capybara Family (Ronsoco ) :

A final rodent species worth noting is the nocturnal bamboo Rat. This large square-muzzled rat is the most unlike source of a bizarre night time noise that can be heard all over the region it sounds as if it is in extreme pain (or ecstasy when it calls a sort of aargh ,aargah and each time you think it’s done its last aargh it comes out with another the record since people I know have started to count them is 59 aaghs see if you can top in the amazon Wildlife.

Hoofed Mammals of the Amazon Wildlife:

Two deer two pigs and a tapir make up the ungulates or hoofed mammals in tambopata Amazon Wildlife the red and the grey Brocket Deers are small solitary forest in the Amazon Wildlife interior deer that are generally very difficult to spot the males have very short straight b antlers both species are shy and wary animals of the rainforest amazon wildlife .

Peccaries of the Amazon Wildlife :

Are wild pigs of the rainforest and one of the few mammals that you can smell before you see or hear they scent mark areas of the forest with a musk like odour secreted from glands on their backs the commonet species the Collared Peccaries is generally seen in small group of three to nine individuals ,although they too are wary animals and most people is encounters will be a loud crashing of undergrowth as the animals dash off and a lingering smell of stale urine .

The Brazilian Tapir to Amazon Wildlife:

Is an impressive creature a cross between a hose and a rhinoceros this two meter long one and a half meter tall two hundred and fifty kilogram beast is one of the rarest animals in the forest solitary and very wary of humans your best chance of seeing one is from a boat up the tambopata Amazon Wildlife river near the two collpas its Peruvian name (sachavaca) means cow –like but with its long prehensile upper lip it looks more like an overweight balding anteater.


As with safaris in Africa many people come to the rainforest hoping to see the spotted cats. Unfortunately the vast majority leave disappointed as (along with the Tapir) the forest felines are terribly difficult to see unless you are extremely Iucky, or stay for a number of months. , The largest and most spectacular of the tambopata cats is the Jaguar in the Amazon Wildlife its stocky build heavily spotted coat large size (upto 150 kgs) are unmistakable it feeds largely on peccaries, capybara and deer, but has been known to eat Caiman, fish, agoutis and roosting birds. They are mostly nocturnal, although during the months of August and September (the breading season, and when most sightings occur) they are sometimes observed sunning themselves on sandbars on the riverbank during the day the other two spotted cats is Tambopala are much smaller than the Jaguar and quite difficult to separate from each other in the field The Ocelot TO Amazon Wildlife is a largely terrestrial feline the size of a large domestic cat. It has black stripes on its neck that turn into spots further down its back the only characterize that separates it from the other small spotted cat the is its tail a margay is tail is much longer than its hind legs and often touches the ground when standing whereas on. Ocelot is tail is shorter than its hind legs Both are very rare cats in our area largely due to hunting pressures at a time when it was fashionable to wear cat skin coats


Are very versatile Amarican cats that are found in dense jungle savannah and mountain habitats from Canada to southern Chile wary of humans and handed in many parts of their range threat to livestock hare they are difficult to see but are occasionally encountered hare they feed mainly mammals such as the agouti and are both diurnal and nocturnal .many of the cats in tambopata Amazon Wildlife including Pumas frequently use our forest trails to hunt and move about on especially at night their tracks can often be followed four hundreds of meter finally probably the most commonly sighted cat cats jaguarondi . This strange looking cat (often mistaken for n weasel) have small head and is always a uniform brown/grey or black it is an excellent tree climber and is the smallest of all the cats with a very slender body and long tail.

The Mustelids (Weasel family) in Amazon Wildlife:

The Tayra is a giant weasel that is equally at home the trees as it on the ground. It probably has the most varied diet of all animals, feeding on fruit insects eggs, reptiles, small mammals and frogs l once watched one very for a week steal bananas from one of the lodges trees each morning taking progressively more bananas than the previous most visitors to tambopata Amazon Wildlife will walk to an oxbow lake deep within the forest often these lakes offer the best opportunity viewing wildlife ,and if you are lucky you might see the most spectacular inhabitants of the lakes in the Amazon Wildlife

Giant Otters in lake Amazon Wildlife .

Giant otters are two metro lone relatives of the more familiar otter species and are a memorable sight indeed they are the only otters where the young stay in family groups for up to five years (often groups are comprised of eight or more individuals). They hunt piranhas and other fish in the lakes and rivers and your best chance of seeing them is in the early morning from a canoe. They are inquisitive animals, often swimming to within twenty meters of canoes and are also very vocal Their singing is quite haunting and drifts across the lake sounding father like some whale-songs. They will also emit a horse-like raspberry’ sound when alarmed, along with various squeaks and coughs.

Contents Info Amazon Birds