Amazon Wildlife Peru Travel

Sandoval Lake Lodge, Amazon Peru, Amazon Wild, Tambopatata Travel

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Amazon Trips Peru 4days

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Amazon Trips Peru: This morning you may visit the Sandoval lake excursion into the Tambopata National Reserve. Glide in a wooden canoe, across a beautiful, mirror-like oxbow lake that is home to the endangered giant river otter, as well as red howler monkeys, red-bellied macaws, anacondas and side-neck turtles. Return to the lodge for lunch. After lunch, consider visit the remarkable Canopy and Anaconda Walk. You will literally walk through the rainforest canopy. After your descent from the Canopy, experience the Anaconda Walk for about 30 minutes along the 200-meter wooden bridge over the Aguajales swamps. Return to the lodge for dinner. Overnight.

  • Length: 4 Days/3 Nights
  • Type of service: Private or Group
  • Location: Southern Peru, Madre de Dios Department, Puerto Maldonado, Tambopata National Reserve, Sandoval Lake Reserve .
  • Activities: Monkey Island, amazon trips peru, jungle trips, tambopata tours, tambopata rainforest ,
  • Altitude: 400 – 3,600 m.a.s.l.
  • Best time to visit: March – December .
  • Departure: Every day
  • Minimum of participants: 2
  • Maximum of participants: 10
  • Price per person: 00 USD

 

Short description of the Amazon Trips Peru 4 days:

During the Tropical Rainforest – Eco Tambo Lodge Tour, you are given an opportunity to try some adrenaline sports such as canopy and zip-line amidst the wild jungle nature of the Tambopata National Reserve! You also give a try to sport fishing of dangerous piranhas! Moreover, you visit Sandoval Lake with its family of giant river otters as well as the Monkey Island, a habitat of 3 monkey species!

Quick Itinerary of the Amazon Trips Peru 4 days:

Tours Day 1: Puerto Maldonado – Madre de Dios River – Monkey Island – Amazon Nature Tambopata .

Tours Day 2: Amazon Nature Tambopata – Sandoval Lake Reserve .

Tours Day 3: Amazon Nature Tambopata – Piranhas Fishing – Canopy – Zip Line .

Tours Day 4: Amazon Nature Tambopata– Madre de Dios River – Puerto Maldonado .

 

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DETAILED ITINERARY WITH AMAZON WILDLIFE:

Amazon Trips Peru 4 days / 3 nights

TOURS DAY 1: AMAZON TRIPS PERU – PUERTO MALDONADO – MADRE DE DIOS RIVER – MONKEY ISLAND

You are welcomed and pick-up from the airport/coach terminal of Puerto Maldonado by our Representative to take you to our office where you can leave your baggage not necessary for the trip. Then, we transfer you to the port of Puerta Capitania where you board a motorboat and navigate up the Madre de Dios River for an hour. On the way, we observe various flora and animal species such as turtles, birds, capybaras and lizards sunbathing on the river shores.

Then, we shortly stop at the Monkey Island (Isla de los Monos) to view some of its 3 monkey species. Later, we reach the Eco Tambo Lodge where we are welcomed by a fresh fruit juice! Afterwards, we accommodate ourselves in twin private rooms and enjoy a short rest. Later on, we follow jungle paths while our experienced Tour Guide explains us about local animals and plants such as trees having over 500 years of age , medicinal plants, toucans, orioles, trogons, macaws, monkeys, butterflies, etc. We get back for dinner then.

Optional: A night walk.

TOURS DAY 2: AMAZON TRIPS PERU – SANDOVAL LAKE RESERVE

After breakfast, we board a motorboat and navigate up the Madre de Dios River until we get to a checkpoint of the Sandoval Lake Reserve and after passing a check we start walking for 5 km to reach Sandoval Lake. There, we take a canoe bringing us to the centre of the lake where we are served lunch watching its typical inhabitants – giant river otters, black caimans, pumas, a prehistoric bird shansho, herons, cormorants, kingfishers, Jesus birds (or lily trotters), red howler monkeys, common squirrel monkeys, white-faced capuchins, sloths, etc. In the end of the day, we return to the lodge for dinner, a shower and overnight.

Optional: A night walk.

TOURS DAY 3: AMAZON TRIPS PERU – PIRANHAS FISHING – CANOPY – ZIP LINE

In the morning, we start walking on surrounding jungle paths enabling us to get to know the biodiversity that this Amazonian jungle site includes. Just to name some of the plant kingdom, you can find there some medicinal plants, ayahuasca, giant and very old jungle trees or chestnuts. Local representatives of the animal kingdom are birds, mammals, reptiles, butterflies, etc. Then, we try to fish piranhas in the Gamitana River.

After that, we get back to the lodge for lunch and a short break. Afterwards, an adrenaline activity awaits us as we try canopy – a walk on a hanging bridge to observe the Amazon landscape from another perspective! But no worries, this is not the only adrenaline sport that you can check today as we are given an opportunity to do zip-line immediately after that!! The zip-line is located above trees in a height of 30 metres! Finally, we return to our lodge for dinner and a sleep.

Optional: A night walk.

TOURS DAY 4: AMAZON TRIPS PERU – MADRE DE DIOS RIVER – PUERTO MALDONADO

After breakfast, we board a motorboat taking us back to Puerto Maldonado sailing up the Madre de Dios River. There, we pick our baggage up from the office and then, we are transferred either to the airport or the coach terminal.

End of service!

IMPORTANT!!

You need to be vaccinated against Yellow Fever as well as to bring some anti-malaria tablets with you!!

 

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Included in the Amazon Trips Peru 4 days:

  • A professional naturalist Tour Guide .
  • Motorboat transportation – amazon nature .
  • Private vehicle land transportation – amazon nature .
  • Entrance fees to  Sandoval Lake Reserve .
  • A professional Cook for jungle trips .
  • Meals: 3 Breakfast, 3 Lunch, 3 Dinner and drinking water (Please note: vegetarian option upon request for no extra cost!) .
  • Accommodation: 3 Nights in lodges in amazon nature tambopata .
  • First aid kit, including a poison extractor, mosquito bite treatment and an antidote for a snake bite .
  • Special equipment for canopy and zip line in amazon nature tambopata .
  • Radio communications .
  • Rubber boots.

Not included in the Amazon Trips Peru 4 days:

  • Any flight nor airport departure taxes .
  • Travel insurance .
  • Vaccination .
  • Breakfast on the first day and dinner on the last day .
  • Drinks .
  • Tips to local staff.

What to take with you to the Amazon Trips Peru 4 days:

  • Mosquito repellent (DEET 35 recommended as a MINIMUM!!) .
  • Original passport for amazon travels .
  • Small backpack .
  • Long sleeved cotton shirts (preferably green coloured) .
  • Long cotton trousers .
  • Cotton long socks (to be put into your trousers) .
  • Comfortable walking shoes .
  • Sandals or light shoes .
  • Rain gear (e.g. rain poncho) .
  • Sweater (for the beginning of the tour in Andes and the cloud forest only) .
  • Swimsuits .
  • Binoculars (we also rent it) .
  • Camera and its charger.
  • Plastic bags to be used for clothes and a camera .
  • A hat as a protection against the Sun or rain .
  • Toiletries .
  • Small towel .
  • Toilet paper .
  • Antibacterial gel .
  • Sun cream .
  • Sunglasses .
  • Flashlight (with spare bulb and batteries) .
  • A bottled water (1 litre as a minimum) .
  • Pocket money (Soles) to buy some beverages and souvenirs as well as to tip.
  • Confirmed departures of the Amazon Nature Tambopata.

 

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AMAZON TRIP PERU 4 days / 3 nights

Amazon Trips Peru 4 days: The Madre de Dios region, where the Tambopata National Reserve is located, is recognised as the “biodiversity capital of Peru”, supporting 30% of Peru’s biodiversity despite only covering 7% of its national territory. It is home to some of the most inspiring, important and threatened species in the world, including giant river otters and a staggering 209 species and subspecies of monkey, including howler, squirrel and spider monkeys and several species of marmoset. There are 21 threatened species found on the IUCN Red List including jaguars, giant armadillos, maned wolves and blue macaws. The project maintains healthy ecosystems that shelter populations of large mammals that were extensively hunted due to the high value of their skins and furs. The region also hosts nearly 35% of all Peru’s reptiles, and 40% of the country’s frogs, toads, salamanders and other amphibians. The Tambopata National Reserve is characterised by a rich diversity of flora species as well as fauna, with over 1200 plants identified so far in amazon nature tambopata.

The Tambopata and Bahuaja-Sonene protected areas in the Peruvian Amazon are considered as the biodiversity capital of Peru and one of the world’s most important biodiversity hotspots, but the areas are under continued threat of deforestation and forest degradation from migratory slash and burn agriculture and illegal gold mining in amazon Peru.

TOURIST INFORMATION Amazon Trails Peru

BIODIVERSITY IN THE AMAZON:

  • Variety of species of animals and plants / endemic / diversity gradient
  • Tepuies and pantepuies.
  • Sheets mountains.
  • Dry and wet savannas: found in the Amazon along with several types of aquatic and marshy vegetation along the river system of the Amazon Basin.

Plants exhibit a clear diversity gradient from east to west, so that the abundance of species is higher in the foothills of the Andes (Gentry 1988), which also happens to many species of animals (Brown 1999). Gentry (1988) attributes this phenomenon to the presence of more fertile soils, higher rainfall and lower degree of seasonality in the climate of the upper Amazon.

Additionally, in the case of plant species, many can be considered as belonging to specific soil conditions and their geographical distribution is correlated with the distribution of particular types of vegetation, such as in the Amazon (De Oliveira and Daly region 1999). However, it also often happens that an area with the same type of vegetation, or with little variety, presents species with different geographic patterns of distribution completely, generally attributed to historical events and evolutionary divergence of populations (Prance 1982; De Oliveira and Daly 1999).

DIVERSITY OF SPECIES IN THE AMAZON:

In the Amazon region, six of the eight ACTO countries belong to the diverse countries. Just to mention a biological group, Brazil, Colombia and Peru live a third of vascular plants known around the world (Mittermeier, Myers, and Gil-Robles Goettsch Mittermeier 1999; Peru: Information System Biodiversity and Environmental of the Peruvian Amazon [SIAMAZONIA] 2007).

Brazil not only has the largest land area of ​​the continent, it is the country with the most number of species of plants, mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians of the eight countries surveyed, with just over 58,000 species. A Brazil followed in wealth of biodiversity: Colombia, with some 49,000 species; Peru, with 38,020 species; and Bolivia, with 22,268 species, for these five biological groups (Table 3.2).

In the Brazilian Amazon 54% of species of plants, 73% of mammal species and 80% of bird species that has the national territory of the country they are concentrated. Peru stands out for the concentration of reptile species (48%) and amphibians (79%) compared to the total number of species in the respective groups in the country. The Ecuadorian Amazon concentrates 53.3% of the total species of mammals; while in the Colombian Amazon they are 46% of the birds recorded in their national territory.

Dinerstein (1995) recognizes the western arc of the Amazon and in particular the areas near the foothills of the Andes known as a zone and extraordinary species diversity and endemism. Either way, it is widely accepted that both the flora and fauna of the Amazon are not only fully documented, but no total counts for the Amazon and new collections constantly incorporate species inventories of fauna and Amazonian flora (Da Silva, Rylands and Da Fonseca 2005; Prance, Beentje, Dransfield and Johns 2000).

For the Brazilian Amazon, Lewinsohn (2005) states that there are 30,000 species of higher plants, 300 ferns (for the lower parts only), 311 mammals, 1,300 birds, over 163 species of amphibians and 1,800 freshwater fish.

Specifically for the Colombian Amazon, the Sinchi Institute Herbarium by Colombian Amazon (MEX) reports a total of 214 plant families with 5,950 species, of which 226 correspond to non-vascular plants and 5,274 vascular (Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies [Ideam] 2004). In turn, the Biodiversity Information System in this country indicates a total of 868 bird species, 140 amphibians, 85 mammals and 147 reptiles for this basin.

In the case of Ecuador, Ecociencia and the Ministry of Environment (2005) distinguish two major ecosystems in the Amazon: the Amazon rainforest and the flooded Amazon forest. For a total of 8,042 first species represented by floors (6249), birds (773), fish (491), mammalian (197), amphibians (167) and recognizes reptiles (165). For the flooded rainforest wealth it is somewhat smaller, with a total of 1,060 species, of which 425 correspond to fish, 366 birds, 139 reptiles, 83 amphibians and 47 mammals. It should be noted that it is likely that many of these species share both ecosystems.

Peru has the world record for the greatest number of species of butterflies (4,200) and 20% of bird species on the planet (Peru Information System for Biological and Environmental Diversity of the Peruvian Amazon shows this wealth of biodiversity. evidenced in the Binational Project “Peace and Biodiversity Conservation, Peru – Ecuador”, supported by Conservation International (Peru: National Institute of Natural Resources [INRENA] – Conservation International 1997), in which he showed the world that in the Cordillera del Condor (Department of Amazonas), in just three weeks, 800 plant species belonging to 94 families were collected. One of the highlights was the families of orchids, 26 species. Many of the species found were new to science. However, it also showed that in this area of ​​great diversity of flora, many species of endangered animals such as the spider monkey (Ateles bezelbuth), the spectacled bear (Tremarctos omatus), the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis) , among others. On the Ecuadorian side, 2,030 species of plants, 613 species of birds, 56 species of frogs and toads, among other found.

On the other hand, the Amazon aquatic biodiversity is also very rich and, like the chemistry of the water, is diverse and complex. Different studies report about 3,000 records of species of algae (Ehrenberg 1843; Forsberg, Araujo-Lima, Martinelli, Victoria and Bonassi 1993; Putz and Junk 1997; Sant’Anna and Martins 1982; Scott, Grönblad and Croasdale 1965 Thomasson 1971; Uherkovich 1976, 1984; Uherkovich and Rai 1979; Uherkovich and Franken 1980). In contrast to this wealth, microalgae densities are very low, due to the low mineralization of Amazonian waters.

Aquatic plants (macrophytes) are those with the largest annual primary production and represent 65% of the aquatic food web, followed by 28% flooded forests. However, forests have the highest biomass because large trees, and follow the periphyton and phytoplankton with 5% and 2%, respectively (Barthem and Goulding 2007).

In the Amazon they have identified 2,500 species of fish, approximately higher than that recorded the Atlantic Ocean amount. It is also known that most of the fish biomass, and in particular the detritófagos fish (fish that feed on decaying organic matter), is related to the primary productivity of lakes and floodplains (Araujo-Lima, Forsberg, Victoria and Martinelli 1986; Forsberg, Araujo-Lima, Martinelli, Victoria and Bonassi 1993).

Among fish, it highlights the paiche or arapaima (Arapaima gigas), which is over 2.5 m weighs 200 kilos. On the other hand, in the marshes or lakes of calm waters are different types of boas, the anaconda (Eunectes murinus) and the caiman (Alligatoridae). In the oxbow lakes are known as charapas turtles (Podocnemis expand), the largest freshwater turtles water world, weighing up to 45 kilos, and taricayas (Podocnernis unifilis) also of frogs and amphibians ( Alvarez 2005).

Amazonian peoples used 1,600 species of medicinal plants to cure various diseases.
More than 30,000 plants, many tree species are present in the Brazilian Amazon.
Lepidoptera (butterflies), multiple color schemes, are among the most beautiful and varied insects of the Amazon.
4,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in the PERU, cosiderada AMOUNT AS THE WORLD MARK.
Aquatic and terrestrial turtles abound in the rivers and lakes of the Amazon, but their habitat is increasingly threatened.
214 families with 5,950 botanical species have been reported in the Colombian Amazon.
2,500 species of fish have been identified in the Amazon, EXCEED THE AMOUNT THAT RECORDS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN.

Centers of endemism:

Endemic areas where species occupying a specific designated area in unique and irreplaceable assemblies are concentrated, are particularly important in the Amazon, as they provide elements for the reconstruction of the formation processes of the biota of the region (Da Silva, Rylands and Da Fonseca 2005). These authors identify eight major areas of endemism of terrestrial mammals for the Amazon: Napo, Imeri, Guyana, Inambari, Rondônia, Tapajos, Xingu and Belem. Of these eight, four are completely in Brazil and the rest of endemic species also occupy areas in other Amazon countries.

These areas vary considerably in size in the eight countries studied and threats presented by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, whose origins are deforestation, livestock, illicit crops and timber extraction, mostly (Gascon, Bierregaard, Laurance and Rankin-de-Merona 2001, Sierra 1999; Armenteras, Rudas, Rodriguez, Sua and Romero 2006). These processes are not evenly distributed among the eight major areas; for example, areas of Rondonia and Xingu have lost between 10 and 50% of its original forest cover. Extreme case is that of Bethlehem, in Brazil, an area which has less than one third of its original state, while Napo, Inambari, Guyana and Tapajós have lost less than 10% of its forests (Da Silva, Rylands and Da Fonseca 2005).

Some binational studies illustrate the specificities of endemism in the Amazon. For example, in the Ecuador-Peru binational project mentioned in the Cordillera del Condor, we show that there is a high level of endemism in the region due to its proximity to the region known as “Huancabamba depression” or step Porculla, which is the limit distribution of many species of flora and north central Andean (Peru: National Institute of National Resources [INRENA] – Conservation International 1997). On the other hand, on the NatureServe binational study (2007) on the ecological systems of the Amazon Basin of Peru and Bolivia, 84 ecological systems were identified 1,249,281 km². It states that ecological systems are shared between the two countries; also 7 sets are unique to Bolivia and 10 occur only in Peru (Josse 2007).

CONSERVATION AREAS:

All Amazon countries have a national system of protected areas and any other form of categories for conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. Conservation areas have been increasing in number and extent, especially since the 1990 Protected areas cover more than 700,000 square kilometers, which represents 12% of the area of ​​the Amazon basin. The countries with the largest protected area are Brazil and Peru, which account for 54% and 13% of the protected area in the Amazon, respectively (Table 3.3) surface. Moreover, the protected area represents 4% of the total land area of ​​the eight member countries of the OTCA.

Management categories of protected areas vary among countries. Some sources indicate that there are at least twenty different categories in the Amazon region that not only involve biodiversity protection, research, education and ecotourism, but also the management of forest resources, such as conservation units in Brazil. In the case of Guyana, in 2001 a strategy for stable was designed – the foundation of a system of protected areas, and, although there is an established system, there are two protected areas legally declared: the Kaieteur National Park and Iwokrama Rainforest Reserve (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 2007). While conservation areas are a valuable tool, some studies indicate that insufficient resources and limited regional coordination affect the efficiency and effectiveness in the management of these areas (ACTO 2007).
Countries, in addition to a national system of protected areas by the State, may have alternative ways to conserve biodiversity. For example, in Peru, since 2007 it has designed a Regional System of Protected Areas for the Region of Loreto (PROCREL), which has the support of the Regional Government of Loreto and driving under the decentralization process as a program Innovative to the Peruvian Amazon. In addition, forms of conservation have driven by the private, such as easements, private conservation areas, conservation concessions, ecotourism concessions sector, among others. Despite national efforts, the limited availability of financial resources and reduced regional coordination determine the scope of conservation through protected areas or conservation units (OTCA 2007) systems.
84 ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS have been identified in 1,249,281 square kilometers in the Amazon basin OF PERU AND BOLIVIA.

BIODIVERSITY LOSS:

Amazonian biodiversity is under increasing pressure gradually, causing its reduction. The pressure comes from the direct destruction of the Amazon ecosystem, and its indirect destruction through use and exploitation unsustainably and the introduction of exotic species. In addition, global warming and the increased incidence of forest fires alter the conditions for the proper functioning of ecosystems.
Public policies promoted processes of colonization and development of productive activities regardless orderly occupation of the territory. Therefore, developed countries in different programs of the agricultural frontier expansion, for which deforestation (slash and burn) is a necessary previous activity.
To this activities such as mining and oil, as well as construction of infrastructure they are added. Overexploitation of renewable natural resources in the Amazon, mainly wood and various components of biodiversity, respond to incentives faced by participating stakeholders. The lack of definition of property rights and an effective system to ensure the enforcement of such rights encourages predatory behavior in order to obtain short-term benefits, without considering the intergenerational environmental, social and economic costs. Similarly, the limited knowledge about the various ecosystem services and their respective value, discourages the use of sustainable management practices. For example, in the case of logging, initially selective extraction is done, but in the medium term it generally results in logging and land conversion for other purposes. In some countries like Peru and Bolivia, the development of shifting cultivation it is responsible for the accelerated removal of the forest and therefore the change in habitat conditions of biodiversity (see section 3.4). Unsustainable use is also associated with the removal of specimens of biodiversity or portion thereof, that usually form part of illegal trade. The introduction of species is associated primarily to agricultural and livestock systems. Naturally, all this involves the modification and / or loss of Amazonian habitat.
In general, illegal trafficking in wildlife is the third largest illicit activity on the planet, the Amazon diversity is no stranger to the dynamics of this market. For example, it exists in the region smuggling of timber species, non-timber (eg orchids) and fauna (especially birds). Despite the efforts of the International Convention on Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), this trade is facilitated, in some cases, development of infrastructure and human settlements in the areas of influence of these projects (Rivera 2007).
Of the twenty countries that allow the legal sale of species, five are part of the Amazon Basin (Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia and Colombia) and sold eleven countries, including the United States, the largest consumer of wild animals in the world. According to estimates of the Herbarium of Brazil, 38 million wild animals are the subject of smuggling Brazilian borders.

Habitat reduction, fragmentation and conversion of ecosystems:

Without doubt, natural ecosystems provide essential goods and services for man (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [MEA] 2006). However, their unsustainable use has led to the reduction of large natural extensions, which has generated deforestation and habitat fragmentation. The destruction of tropical forests has received worldwide attention because these ecosystems are key to the stability of global processes such as the carbon cycle, water regulation, conservation and maintenance of biodiversity, and the potential effects on climate Global (Fearnside 1995; Fearnside, Lima Alves Alencastro and Rodriguez 2001).
Usually, the processes of occupation of the Amazon territory take place in three stages: the first consists of typical activities of logging, wood and fibers, with a consequent decrease in the number of mature trees (Nepstad, Veríssimo Alencar, Nobre , Lefebvrey Schlesinger 1999). The second, framed in burning processes that tend, on the one hand, to reduce the soil seed bank, and secondly, to increase the mortality of seeds and seedlings due to competition with pioneer species and lianas (Cochrane and Schulze 1999; Gascon, Williams and Da Fonseca 2000; Perez-Salicrup 2001). And the third, composed by hunting and habitat loss, activities that eliminate seed dispersers (Laurance 2001; Silva and Tabarelli 2000, 2001). This process leads to a loss of species, often irreplaceable, in the Amazon ecosystems.
The fragmentation of natural ecosystems (“fragmentation” understood as the division of continuous fragments smaller patches that are partially or totally disconnected) is caused by the development of infrastructure, human settlements and agricultural practices of minor and major scale (monoculture) (see section 2.2). This process affects a large extent, habitat quality and results in a significant loss of species richness (Laurance 1998; Laurance, Delamonica Laurance and Lovejoy Vasconcelos 2000). These impacts are related to the effects of “edge”, which cause physical and biotic changes in the remaining fragments, resulting in an abundance of pioneer species and changes in gene banks. This greatly affects the demographics and community attributes, and threatens the “natural” regeneration and functioning of forest (Laurance Laurance, Ferreira, Rankin-de-Merona, Gascon
and Lovejoy 1997; Gascon et al. 2000, Benitez and Martinez 2003).
Infrastructure development (encouraged by the government or illegal kind) triggers a series of events that affect biodiversity and ecosystems, and cause even more destruction of forest plantations (Fearnside 2005, Soares-Filho, Alencar, Nepstad, Cerqueira Vera Diaz Rivero 2004). The trails that facilitate logging roads usually precede and expand the frontier for use in agriculture and livestock (see section 2.2). Logging, meanwhile, has encouraged the degradation of ecosystems and, additionally, has made some areas more susceptible to fires due to: (i) increasing the flammability of the forest and (ii) lower the number of days without rain event that enables the understory (clump of bushes found under or near a forest) conditions flammability range (Fearnside 2005; Nepstad, Lefebvre, Lopes Da Silva, Tomasella, Schlesinger Solorzano
2004).
The conversion and habitat loss has been severe and the rate of deforestation is increasing in the Amazon, which is linked to international prices of livestock and agricultural products, allowing increased earnings in these sectors as well as public policy that they are developed to address deforestation (Soares-Filho, Nepstad, Curran, Cerqueira, Garcia Ramos Azevedo, Voll, McDonald, Lefebvre and Schlesinger 2006) (see section 3.4). The rate of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased during the period 1988- 2004 (Fearnside 2005), mainly due to the expansion of livestock and ranches medium and large area are primarily responsible for more than half of it (Laurance, Albernaz, Schroth, Fearnside, Bergen, Venticinque and Da Costa 2002). In contrast, during the period 2005-2006 deforestation rates fell significantly: in 2006 a reduction of 25% was recorded, which is also explained by the effectiveness of public programs and projects to reduce deforestation on the basis of the participation of local populations (Brazil: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Mines and Energy, and Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, 2007). However, in 2007 again the deforestation rate grew by 15% over the previous year due to the rapid growth of international food prices, which stimulated the expansion of agricultural production (Brazil: National Research Institute Space [INPE] 2008).
Although in the Amazon are more than half of the remaining rainforest in the world, continues
presenting a very rapid deforestation, with consequent changes in the patterns of loss of ecosystems (Malhi, Baldo-cchi and Jarvis 1999; Laurance 1998; Whitmore 1997; Brazil: INPE 2008; Lima and Gascon 1999). This process results in the loss of habitat for species, increased fragmentation and increased isolation of fragments remaining ecosystems, which can affect the ecological processes of these, its structure, dynamics and functioning, both at ecosystems , and species and genes (Carvalho and Vasconcelos 1999; Gascon, Lovejoy, Bierregaard, Malcolm, Stouffer and Vasconcelos 1999; Davies and Margules 1998; Laurance, Ferreira and Rankin-de-Merona 1998; Laurance, Delamonica Laurance and Lovejoy Vasconcelos 2000; Nepstad, Veríssimo Alencar, Nobre, Lefebvre and Schlesinger 1999).
Variations in climate caused forest cover local and regional changes, which alters hydrological cycles and even accelerates the processes of desertification. In the Amazon, during the period 2000-2005, annual deforestation was 27,151 sq km. Laurance, Albernaz, Schroth, Fearnside, Bergen, Venticinque and Da Costa (2002) identify, along with transportation infrastructure and human population density, another cause of deforestation and habitat loss in the Brazilian Amazon is the severity factor the dry season. There is evidence to show that tropical deforestation in the Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon is concentrated in those driest ecosystems, since these are most vulnerable to fire (Laurance, Albernaz, Schroth, Fearnside, Bergen, Venticinque and Da Costa 2002; Steininger, Tucker, Townshend, Killeen, Desch, Bell and Ersts 2001). On the other hand, the effects of increased CO2 emissions, nitrogen fixation, air pollution and climate change are not yet fully understood, but preliminary evidence suggests that may cause huge changes in species composition and forest structure in Amazon (Clark, Piper, Keeling and Clark 2003; Lewis, Phillips, Baker, Lloyd, Malhi and Almeida 2004).
On the other hand, extreme events (eg floods, storms and earthquakes), which are increasing in frequency and intensity in general in the world and in the region markedly alter habitat characteristics and therefore affect biodiversity. This means that the vulnerability of biodiversity is increased not only by human actions, but also by extreme events.
The destruction of tropical forests has received worldwide attention because these ecosystems are key to the stability of global processes such as the carbon cycle, water regulation, conservation and maintenance of biodiversity, and the potential effects on climate global.
Amazonian nature is so abundant, diverse and surprising properties that mimicry of some species, like this orchid are not alien to it.
Ecosystem services and biodiversity show a process of deterioration: the number of extinct, endangered and critically endangered species.
27,151 square kilometers were cleared ANNUAL IN THE AMAZON during 2000-2005

 

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