Amazon Tour Sandoval Lake 2dias

Amazon Tour Sandoval Lake 2 dias.

A trip to the Sandoval lake begins with the transfer from the Puerto Maldonado airport to the port located on the Madre de Dios River. Arrival at the pier and transfer by boat to the Lodge. Along the way we will make a brief visit of the city. After about 25 min. navigation, we will arrive at the beginning of a path by which we will make a walk (25 to 30 min.) that will take us to a small channel, where we will board a canoe that will lead us for a few minutes of travel to Lake Sandoval. There we will board a catamaran to reach the Sandoval Lake.

amazon tour

Amazon Tour 2 days / 1 nights Sandoval lake Reserve .

  • Length: 2 days/1 nights
  • Type of service: Private or Group
  • Location: Southern Peru, Madre de Dios Department, Puerto Maldonado, Sandoval Lake Reserve,
  • Activities: Jungle Tours, Jungle Trips, Sandoval Lake, Macaw Palm Tree, Nature Travel lodge .
  • Altitude: 139 – 400 m.a.s.l.
  • Best time to visit: March – October
  • Departure: Every day
  • Minimum of participants: 2
  • Maximum of participants: 10
  • Price per person: 170 USD

Tour Itinerary

Itinerary Amazon Tour Sandoval Lake 2 days

Amazon Tour sandoval lake  1 day

-We will pick you up from your hotel
-We will pick you up at the airport on our bus.
-We take our 45 minute boat
-1 Accommodations in their respective rooms
-Monkey Island and Walks
-Night walk

Amazon Tour sandoval lake  2 day

-hour walk – Macaw Palm Lick 2 hour walk 5 am .
-We will return to the Madre de Dios River to return to our boat and return to Puerto Maldonado
-Arrival in Puerto Maldonado and transfer to the airport or bus stations

Quick Itinerary – Amazon Tour .

Tour Day 1: Puerto Maldonado – Amazon Tour – Lodge
Tour Day 2: Sandoval Lake – Amazon Tour –Puerto Maldonado

Amazon Tour Day 1: Puerto Maldonado  – Refuge Sandoval Lake Lodge :

You are welcomed and pick-up from the airport/coach terminal of Puerto Maldonado by our Representative to take you to our office where you can leave your large baggage not necessary for the trip, but you will need a backpack for personal items and more. Then, we transfer you to a local port where you board a motorboat and

navigate down the Madre de Dios River. On the way, we observe various mammal species such as turtles, birds, lizards, monkeys, turtles, caimans, etc., until we reach a checkpoint of the Sandoval Lake Reserve and after passing a check, we start walking for 5 km (1 and half an hour) to reach Sandoval Lake where we take a canoe bringing us to the Lodge. There, we accommodate ourselves and after lunch, we return sailing the lake in a canoe to see its typical inhabitants – giant river otters, black caimans, a prehistoric bird shansho, herons, cormorants,


kingfisher, etc. Then, we return to the lodge for dinner to later get back to the lake again, this time to undertake an evening caiman observation, as caimans are nocturnal animals. Our professional naturalist Tour Guide shows and explains us about these animals. We stay overnight in the lodge.

Amazon Tour  2: – Sandoval Lake – Puerto Maldonado  Airport :

Today, we wake up very early go to the surroundings of the Sandoval Lake where huge number of various palms grow in its water creating an area of marsh.This place is called Macaw Palm Tree (Collpa de Palmeras ) and it

amazon tour

attracts various macaw species and other parrots to eat sawdust of its palms as it contains sodium, calcium, potassium and other minerals helping them to digest. Then, we go back to the lodge to be given breakfast. Later,

amazon tour

we take a next trip going to observe stunning flora and fauna of the Sandoval Lake Reserve.

Tour Includes / Not Includes


Included in the Nature Amazon Tour  – Lodge 2 days:

  • A professional Naturalist Tour Guide;
  •  Motorboat transportation;
  •  Entrance fee to the Sandoval Lake Reserve;
  •  Meals: 1x Breakfast, 1x Lunch, 1x Dinner and drinking water lodge (Please note: vegetarian option upon request for no extra cost!);
  •  Accommodation: 1 nights in lodge;
  •  First aid kit,
  •  Radio communications;
  •  Rubber boots.

Not included in the Amazon Tour  2 days

  •  Any flight nor airport departure taxes;
  •  Travel insurance;
  •  Vaccination;
  •  Breakfast on the first day and last day Lunch;
  •  Drinks;
  •  Tips to local staff.

What You Need to Bring in the  Amazon Tour 2 days

  •  Mosquito repellent (DEET 35 recommended as a MINIMUM!!),
  •  Original passport,
  •  Small backpack,
  •  Long sleeved cotton shirts (preferably green coloured),
  •  Long cotton trousers,
  •  Cotton long socks (to be put into your trousers),
  •  Comfortable walking shoes,
  •  Sandals or light shoes,
  •  Rain gear (e.g. rain poncho),
  •  Sweater (for the beginning of the tour in Andes and the cloud forest only),
  •  Swimsuit;
  •  Binoculars (we also rent it),
  •  Camera and its charger,
  •  Plastic bags to be used for clothes and a camera,
  •  A hat as a protection against the Sun or rain,
  •  Toiletries,
  •  Small towel,
  •  Toilet paper,
  •  Sunscreen,
  •  Sunglasses,
  •  Flashlight (with spare bulb and batteries),
  •  A bottled water (1 litre as a minimum),
  •  Pocket money (Soles) to buy some beverages and souvenirs as well as to tip.






Your journey to Tambopata National Reserve offers a range of land and river excursions that introduce you to the magic of the Amazon rainforest. There are options to suite all interest amazon tour.

The wildlife in the reserve is remarkable, from giant and colourful parrots, to toucans, macaws, tapirs, tamarins, owls and the beautiful Southern Amazon  amazon tours Red Squirrel amazon tour . Additionally, there are thousands of species of butterflies tour amazon , a large variety of monkeys, otters and four species of felines but to mention only some of what resides in this pristine environment in this  area amazon tour .

Reserve Amazonica – Amazon  Peru .

4-star lodge with own canopy walkway, ceiling fans in rooms & ensuite bathrooms The Reserva Amazonica is a private ecological reserve and research centre which covers an area amazon tours of 10,000 hectares in  area amazon tour . It is located near the city of Puerto Maldonado in the Southern Amazon region of Tambopata of Peru the best area amazon tour .

Puerto Maldonado is also the easiest part of the Amazon amazon tours to access from Cusco and Machu Picchu, being only a 35 minute flight from Cusco amazon tour . The lodge is ideally located on the banks of the Madre de Dios River is park amazon tour . Built with natural materials it gives you a feeling of being part of the jungle but does not hold back on comfort tour amazon .

Sandoval Lake Lodge Amazon Tour .

Sandoval Lake Lodge is also easily accessed from the city of Puerto Maldonado tour amazon a short motorised boat transfer toura mazon . Constructed almost entirely of ecologically-harvested “driftwood” mahogany trees collected from the floods that naturally carry logs down river out of Manu National Park amazon tour . The lodge is one extended structure consisting of a large screened main dining / lounge room with 25 fully-screened double-occupancy rooms arranged in two wings. All rooms and communal areas have electricity, as well as kerosene lamps and candle tour amazon .

tour amazon Depending on the time of year you will be offered a variety of activities which may include a possible encounter with the lake’s giant otters or spotting some prehistoriclooking Hoatzins pre historica birds amazon tour . These odd, leaf-eating birds are the size of chickens and sport bare blue faces tour amazon , red eyes and punk rock crests! tours amazon  You can also explore the eastern part of Sandoval Lake where you may see scores of the various species of monkeys that live here. In these inland black-water lakes and swamps there is usually excellent bird watching and you may also see the giant Queen Victoria water lilies up close tour amazon .

Amazon Jungle -Amazon Tour .

For a complete contrast to your trek or tour in the Andes why not visit the lush Amazon tour  jungle A short but spectacular flight will take you over the mountains and down to the Amazon basin. The Amazon tour  basin tours amazon encompasses nearly 3 million square miles, of which two thirds is covered by rainforest and comprising the largest and most bio-diverse tract of tropical rainforest in the world tour amazon . For your Amazon extension you will fly to the city of Puerto Maldonado and from there travel down river to your jungle lodge amazon peru .

We offer a selection of jungle lodges with various standards of accommodation and wildlife experience. You may also choose whether to stay for 2 or 3 nights in the jungle or even a longer more adventurous expedition of 5 days downstream to the Tambopata Research Centre amazon tour .

National Reserve  Tambopata .

The establishment of the Tambopata National Reserve is the result of efforts of various individuals and institutions to conserve the ecosystems of the Tambopata tour amazon . In 1977, by Ministerial Resolution No. 0001-77-MR-AG / DGFF, the Tambopata (ZRT) zone is created on an area tours amazon  of ​​5500 ha surrounding Explorer’s Inn tour amazon , occupying the territory between the river La Torre, the Tambopata River and the Hell Creek. In 1990, on an area of tour amazon ​​4 478 942.45 ha (which includes the Tambopata Reserved Zone 1 478 942.45 ha), by RM No. 032-90-AG / DGFF Tambopata Reserved Zone is created, occupying part of the territory of the regions of Madre de Dios tour amazon and Puno  amazon peru .

Reserved Zone Tambopata this transitional category remained until 1996, by Supreme Decree – DS No. 012-96-AG, part of its surface is adhered to the Pampas del Heath National Sanctuary to form the Bahuaja Sonene National Park  tour amazon ; and the remaining area was waiting for categorization tours amazon , and in 2000, that by Supreme Decree No. 048-2000-AG, the Tambopata National Reserve tour amazon is established amazon tour . In it, a portion goes to the extension of the Bahuaja Sonene National Park tour amazon and 262,315 ha are excluded to be part of the buffer zone of the two Protected Areas (INRENA 2003) amazon peru .

The Tambopata National Reserve tour amazon is then established over an area of ​​274 690.00 ha (INRENA 2003), located in the province of Tambopata of Madre de Dios region tours amazon  finding amazon tour . It should be noted that the local population (native chestnut, miners, farmers), the tourism sector and labor organizations were involved directly and / or indirectly to the processes of categorization and management of the Tambopata National Reserve amazon tour .

Tambopata Creation Goals – Amazon Tour :

The objectives of creating the RNTAMB correspond to the establishment of the Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone amazon peru : protection of flora and fauna and scenic beauty of the place, maintain and evaluate natural and cultural resources tour amazon , as well as investigate the potential use of natural resources and the participation of neighboring communities in the management of these resources (DS No. 012-96 AG) tour amazon . While in the Master Plan, the 2004-2008 period RNTAMB (INRENA 2003) establishing targets widen the area:

  • tour amazon Protection of flora, fauna and ecological processes of a sample of the southern Amazon tour of Peru.
  • tour amazon   Generate conservation processes with the population in the area of ​​the reserve, in order to sustainably use resources such as chestnut trees and the landscape for recreation tour amazon .
  • tour amazon   Contribute to sustainable development of the region and the country, from knowledge of biodiversity and the management of the various renewable natural resources in mazon tour.

Climate Tambopata – Sandoval Lake – Amazon Tour .

The climate corresponds to wet or very humid subtropical forest tour amazon , with an average annual temperature of 26 ° C, fluctuating between 7.1 ° C (Quispe, 2004) and 38 ° C (Räsänen, 1993, quoted by CI-Peru  tour amazon , 1999 ). Low temperatures are conditioned by cold Antarctic winds coming at irregular intervals through the Andes and enter the Amazon basin  tour amazon . The presence of cold winds, “cold spell” occurs with greater intensity in the months of June and July (Shenck, 1999) tour amazon .

Maximum temperatures reach 38 ° C and are regularly presented in the months of September and October. The annual precipitation ranges from 1600 mm to 2400 mm (Räsänen, 1993, quoted by CI-Peru, 1999) tours amazon .

The monthly rainfall shows variation over the year, appearing months of maximum rainfall (December to March), transition months (April, May, October, November) and the dry season months (June, July, August and  September) tour amazon . The average monthly rainfall recorded ranging from 50.0 mm (July) to 370.1 mm (December), with a monthly rainfall of 603.6 mm (January) and a minimum monthly rainfall of 2.6 mm (July).

tour amazon The average annual precipitation for the period 2002-2006 is 381.4 mm 2, with great irregularity in the registration period; the maximum annual (2 864.0 mm) was presented in 2003 and the annual minimum value (1 804.3mm) was presented in 2005  tour amazon . To identify the climate was taken as reference the study of climatic classification of Peru and Climate respective Map (SENAMHI, 2006)tour amazon   .

Tourism Tambopata – Sandoval Lake – Amazon Tour:

Tourism in the ANP of Peru is an activity that develops sustainability criteria and mitigate negative impacts, which can be a conservation tool in areas that support tourism amazon peru .

RNTAMB is regarded as the first destination of nature in the SINANPE and second in revenue collection after the Sanctuary; by the existence of important attractions as tourism-oriented collpas river and mountains, lakes, trails, rivers  tour amazon , charismatic species and the rich biodiversity that counts (RNTAMB, 2009) tour amazon .

Tourist Attractions in Tambopata – Sandoval Lake Amazon Tour:

The RNTAMB attractions visited are grouped into sectors, within which were installed surveillance posts and Control (PCV) in charge of register control and monitor activity  tour amazon . The defined areas are  tour amazon : Lake Sandoval, Middle Tambopata with PCV Alto La Torre and Tambopata with PCV Malinowski. Then the tourism hierarchy detailed in the inventory of tourism resources of Peru tour amazon prepared by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism (MINCETUR, 2011) and the outcome of the evaluation of 7 attractions Tourist Use Plan – PUT according RNTAMB PCV tour amazon .

Amazon Tour Among the tourist attractions are: Collpa Colorado, Chuncho Lick, Collpa La Torre  tour amazon , Sachavacayoc Lake, Lake Convicted, Sentenced Lake, Lake Cocococha, Lake La Torre, Katicocha Lake, Lake Sandoval tour amazon  .

Amazon Tour – Sandoval Lake Reserve  :

Sandoval Lake has its origin is due to strangulation of one of the meandering Madre de Dios River  tour amazon  and is located on the right bank of the latter to 8 Km tour amazon . From the city of Puerto Maldonado. To reach this lake you must navigate motorboat for 25 minutes following the stream, then walk along a path that proceeds through the woods for about an hour and thirty minutes tours amazon . On the way visitors  amazon tour can observe a variety of plant species such as orchids, platanillos, ungurahuis and homiceas, into the lake itself full of grass islet existing wetlands water hole where the tree grows in amazon peru . As for wildlife, there are plenty of ducks, otters, alligators, wild chickens, tapirs, toucans, macaws, water turtles  in the lake  amazon tour. In this lake usually you go fishing catching a variety of fish like paiche measuring of 1-4 meters. There is a section of the lake in which the temperature ranges between 20 ° C and 26 ° C, here visitors can enjoy a refreshing swim without any danger tour amazon .

Amazon Tour Lake – Valencia  :

Amazon Peru :Lake Valencia is located 60 km. From Puerto Maldonado downstream the Madre de Dios River    tour amazon  and the trip takes about 4 hours. The flora and fauna all over this lake are varied and so are tempting for the curiosity of visitors in the  amazon tour . The anglers are suitable for catching fish like sea bass, dorado, the maid, among other field. Some Puerto Maldonado restaurants have specialized in preparing exquisite dishes based on these fish  tour amazon .

Amazon Tour – Oxbow lake:

The oxbow lake is located on the left bank of the Tambopata River  tour amazon , 55 km. From Puerto Maldonado, distance is covered in 3 hours, before reaching the lake you have to walk by a pedestrian stretch for about 30 minutes  tour amazon . The landscape around the lake is rewarding because it offers lush vegetation populated bird in this area amazon tour .

Amazon Tour – Pastora Lago Grande:

The route to this lake is formed by the combination of a dirt road, a dirt road and a short stretch of navigation on the Madre de Dios River  tour amazon  , downstream from the mining port of Maze tour amazon . The total distance from Puerto Maldonado to the said lake is 65 km. That is covered in about 3 hours tour amazon . In the lush flora of this area, highlighting the palm trees, the ungurahui, the watering, the cetico and rubber. With regard to fauna, it features herons, macaws, paujiles, partridges, turtles and other wildlife amazon peru .

Amazon Tour -Tupac Amaru lake:

Tupac Amaru lake is 25 km. From the city of Puerto Maldonado and get there by a dirt road unpaved after a journey of about an hour. Amazon tour this lake is suitable for the practice of sport fishing in their waters because there is abundance and variety of fish. On the other hand, the attractive surrounding landscape contains appreciable amounts of lizards, charapas, monkeys, butterflies of different colors and sizes and many species of birds, among which the sticks finding in this area mazon tour


Law of the Jungle in Peru .

Socialism and Democracy Issue 51 (November 2009)

Between April 9 and June 19, 2009, what started as a protest demanding attention to basic material and political rights by the most marginalized sectors of Peruvian society turned into a powerful and widespread indigenous-popular uprising amazon Tour  .

Stereotyped as chunchos (“the wild ones” in Quechua language) tour amazon  because of their alleged “wildness” and lack of any form of civilization, amazon Tour Amazonian peoples have been since the foundation of the Republic marginal to national society amazon tour . In contrast, as reputed inheritors of a romanticized imperial civilization, humble and obedient workers, amazon peru Andean Indigenous peoples were included – albeit in a subordinate manner – in the dominant Creole national imaginary tour amazon . Set against this background – as noted by scholar Roger Rumrill – the Amazonian uprising stands as an “historical turning point” for Peruvian cultural and political formation amazon tour . By bringing a “sudden consciousness among all Peruvians of the terrible fracture between Indigenous and non-Indigenous societies,” the uprising brought visibility for the first time to the socially, politically and culturally neglected Amazonian peoples in the amazon peru .

The Amazonian uprising has not only redrawn Peru’s political landscape  tour amazon ; it has made Amazonian Indigenous peoples the most important actor in this crucial political conjuncture in the mazon peru . The struggle also helped unite a broad field of anti-neoliberal social and political forces tour amazon   around their common rejection of the legislative package popularly in amazon tour .

1 Roger Rumrill, “Nuevo mapa político en la Amazonía peru tour amazon .

1 known as the “Law of the Jungle amazon tour .” The disputed legislation sought to undermine the collective property regime of both highland Andean amazon peru  and lowland Amazonian indigenous communities by conceding supposedly “uncultivated” lands to lumber companies, surrendering the nation’s rights over natural resources to private investors amazon Tour.

Other measures sought to expand the area of forest tour amazon concessions (to almost 100,000 acres for use over 40 years) tours amazon ; facilitate the use of public waters by private irrigation projects; lower the restrictions on transgenic seeds; ease government control over protected areas; and establish forest zones tour amazon of “permanent production in the amazon tour .” One of the most controversial aspects of the decrees is that they allow private interests to buy up indigenous lands and resources  tours amazon.

More importantly, the Amazonian amazon tour  uprising has also made possible a hitherto elusive alliance between Amazonian tour amazon and Andean indigenous peoples – an alliance that will be key to blocking the predatory expansion of capital across the final frontier to its global and absolute dominance peru amazon tour amazon . As one of the planet’s richest sources of oxygen, water, energy, and biodiversity tour amazon , Amazonia is of primordial importance not only for Peruvian tour amazon citizens but for all humanity. Indigenous understandings, ethical stands toward life in all its forms, collective forms of decision-making, non-capitalist drives, and communal pluralism also stand at the center of a possible new universalism beyond capitalism amazon tour .

Against the Law of the Jungle amazon peru

On June 5, 2009, near a stretch of highway known as the Devil’s Curve in the northern Peruvian Amazon tour , police began firing live rounds into a multitude of indigenous protesters and their supporters – mestizos from the surrounding area tour amazon , army veterans, and a group of ronderos from the Andean Highlands. 2 In the nearby towns of Bagua Grande, Bagua Chica, and Utcubamba, shots also came from police snipers on rooftops and from a helicopter that hovered above the mass of people tour amazon . Far from being deterred by this bloody repression, both natives and mestizos escalated their protestamazon Tour  .

2 Members of rondas – community-appointed self-defense and vigilance units – ronderos are also charged with the administration of customary law amazon peru.

2 By the end of the day, a number of buildings belonging to the government and to President Alan García’s APRA party had been destroyed tour amazon . At least 24 policemen and 11 Indigenous protesters – by official count – were killed, and additional protesters were disappeared (estimates vary). Overwhelmed by the number of wounded, small local hospitals were forced to shutter their doors tour amazon . A Church official disclosed that many of the civilian wounded and killed at the Devil’s Curve were forcefully taken to the military barracks of El Milagro. From Bagua, a local journalist told a radio station that policemen had dumped bagged bodies into the Utcubamba River amazon tour .

The confrontation had entered its acute phase several weeks earlier when, in violation of its September 2008 agreement with the Amazonian peoples of the amazon tour , the government purposely delayed negotiations that had been scheduled, with the mediation of Congress, a few months before tour amazon . The September agreement, together with Congressional revocation of controversial presidential Decrees 1015 and 1073 (aimed at privatizing communal lands and erasing indigenous autonomy) had resolved a weeks-long Amazonian Indigenous strike organized by the umbrella group Inter-Ethnic Association for the Development of the Peruvian Amazon amazon Tour  (AIDESEP).3 The decrees that were revoked by Congress had overturned local community rulings so as to allow “business partners,” buyers, or mortgage-holders into indigenous territories tour amazon , thereby eliminating the last legal resource available to indigenous peoples to protect their territorial integrity and autonomy amazon tour . The September compromise curtailed the Law of the Jungle amazon tour , requiring negotiation of issues affecting territorial rights, self-determination, health and education, and cultural integrity. This was a victory for AIDESEP and a severe blow to García’s neoliberal plans tours amazon . As such, it established the Indigenous Amazonian peoples as a pivotal actor in Peruvian politics amazon peru .

The indigenous victory however was short lived tour amazon . Oblivious to the generalized opinion that the “Law of the Jungle amazon tour ” and the Free Trade Agreements – would have a detrimental impact on the environment and would also undermine national sovereignty, García persisted with his project tour amazon . Describing Congress’s decisions as “an historical mistake,” while keeping contact and conversations with Amazonian representatives open amazon Tour ,

3  was created in the late 1970s. Its background is discussed in a later section of this article.

3 García launched an aggressive political and media offensive against their organization tour amazon . Frustrated with García’s uncompromising stance tour amazon , launched a second general strike on April 9, 2009. In a public declaration it demanded that Congress rescind the “Law of the Jungle,” establish a genuine Mesa de Diálogo, and create new government agencies charged with implementing “intercultural” solutions to indigenous health and education problems tours  amazon . The document also called for recognition of indigenous collective property rights, guarantees for special territorial reserves of communities in voluntary isolation, and the suspension of land concessions to oil, gas, mining, lumber, and tourism industries tour amazon .

4 Indigenous organizations also demanded a new constitution that would incorporate the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous tour amazon Peoples and the International Labor Organization (ILO)’s Convention 169, both of which guarantee indigenous rights to territorial and cultural amazon tour  autonomy. Finally, the April declaration also calls for the suspension of the government’s free trade agreements with the United States, the European Union, Chile, and China, all of which endanger indigenous territorial rights and Amazonian biodiversity amazon tour . Taken together, these proposals constitute an alternative approach to modernization, rejecting the predatory demands of capital and affirming commitment to the environment, indigenous peoples, and national sovereignty amazon tour .

The decrees comprising the “Law of the Jungle amazon tour ” had been signed by García under special powers he received from Congress to implement the 2006 US-Peru Free Trade Agreement. In the opinion of legal experts, at least nine of those decrees contravene the prescriptions of the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (ILO Convention 169), as well as Peru’s own Constitutional right of self-determination to peasant and indigenous communities amazon tour .

Both the ILO Convention and the Peruvian tour amazon Constitution grant indigenous peoples the right of consultation, participation, and decision in development projects affecting their wellbeing and territories tour amazon . Although Peru, like many other Latin American countries, has legally adopted  principles, they have so far remained a dead letter mazon tour .

By  4 Peoples in voluntary isolation are those recently contacted and that by their own will decide to live without contact with the larger society tour amazon .

Many of these communities were initially contacted by AIDESEP that have also negotiated with the government the creation of territorial reserves tour amazon allocated exclsuively to these communities amazon Tour.

4 privatizing forests, hydrocarbons, water, and minerals, the Law of the Jungle amazon tour  also violates the specific Constitutional provision that “all renewable and non-renewable resources are patrimony of the nation tour amazon .”

5 Following a colonial logic of “progress” and the capitalist predatory mode, García’s decrees foster the commodification of indigenous territories, ecological reserves amazon tour , communal and public lands, water, and biogenetic resources to the benefit of powerful transnational interests tour amazon . What’s more, the Law of the Jungle amazon tour  implicitly conceives of indigenous Amazonia tour amazon as an open, empty, bountiful, and underdeveloped frontier and its inhabitants as obstacles to neoliberal modernization and investment schemes amazon Tour .

President García defended the government’s violent reaction and blamed the indigenous peoples for thinking they could decide what happens in their territories amazon tour : “These people don’t have crowns tour amazon .

They aren’t first-class citizens who can say… ‘You [the government] don’t have the right to be here amazon tour .’ No way.” The president called the protesters “pseudo-indigenous.” Oblivious to demands from the most diverse quarters, García hardened his position, accusing indigenous leaders of terrorism incited by an alleged international “anti-system” force. Charged with sedition, indigenous leader Alberto Pizango was forced to seek political asylum in Nicaragua. Resorting to a bygone discourse, García further asserted that with the participation of “foreign leaders,” the country was living through a “cold war” – part and parcel of what he considered to be “a continental conflict” pitting the forces of “economic and political democracy” against those of “economic statism and demagoguery” represented amazon Tour.

5 AIDESEP-Equipo Legal. Decretos Legislativos que afectan a los Pueblos Indígenas tour amazon emitidos por el Poder Ejecutivo en virtud a la Ley n. 29157. Análisis de los principales Decretos Legislativos  tour amazon .

5 As indigenous groups escalated their direct action campaign, the government declared a state of siege on May 9 in four of the most militant provinces of Amazon tour. Despite the crackdown, AIDESEP gained sympathy and solidarity from broad sectors of Peruvian society  tour amazon .

Unions, popular organizations, and highland peasant and indigenous groups have staged “civic strikes” and other protest actions  tour amazon .

Elected municipal and regional authorities across the country have also expressed their support tour amazon . And Catholic bishops across the Amazon tour  region have called on the faithful to support indigenous demands, stating that the “rich cultural and biological diversity” of the region represents a “source of life and hope for humanity.” amazon peru .

Amazon  Peru was rocked by a national day of protest called by the country’s largest trade union federation and other social movement umbrella groups tour amazon . Thousands took to the streets to protest García’s neoliberal policies and to express their solidarity with AIDESEP’s struggle tour amazon . In Lima a massive march arrived at the steps of Congress, demanding that the Law of the Jungle amazon Tour be declared unconstitutional tour amazon .

Meanwhile, the just- concluded Fourth Continental Indigenous People’s Summit, which was held in southern amazon Peru, called for an international day of action in solidarity with the Amazonian uprising  tour amazon .

7 Labor confederations, Andean indigenous  tour amazon , campesino and popular organizations, coalesced with AIDESEP into a Frente por la Defensa de la Vida y la Soberanía and called for a three-day Jornada Nacional de Lucha. Far from deterring mobilization, the June 9 massacre at Devil’s Curve in Bagua and the ensuing repression triggered further discontent and mobilization in solidarity with AIDESEP, in defense of the Amazon tour amazon , and against García’s Free Trade Agreements. Under the slogan La Selva No Se Vende. La Selva Se Defiende (“the forest is not for sale; the forest defends itself”), a myriad of popular organizations, women’s groups, youth collectives, labor unions, and peasant federations mobilized together in a number of militant and creative ways amazon tour. Threatened by mounting popular discontent, under the scrutiny of international Human Rights organizations, under criticism from clergy  amazon peru

6 Office, and facing plummeting approval rates, García caved in  tour amazon .8 Finally, on June 18 after meeting with AIDESEP leaders, a humbled Prime Minister Yehude Simeon (himself a former leftist and political prisoner under Fujimori) announced the withdrawal of the two decrees most legally threatening to the territorial tour amazon and cultural autonomy of Amazonian Indigenous peoples, bringing the Amazonian strike to an end amazon tour .

The overthrow of the controversial decrees however did not end the popular mobilization.

The Frente por la Defensa de la Vida y la Soberania, which included AIDESEP in its ranks, demanded punishment for those responsible for the June 9 Devil’s Curve Massacre, the resignation of the Cabinet, and the end of Free Trade Agreements with the United States, China and Chile. Between July 7 and 9 throughout the country, thousands took to the streets staging marches, road blockades tour amazon , regional strikes and other forms of civil disobedience with a militancy and creativity not seen since the mass actions that hastened the fall of Fujimori in 2000. In the mostly indigenous highland provinces of Andahuaylas and Chumbivilcas, the strike turned into local uprisings which continued for a few weeks. Besieged but still arrogant tour amazon , García restructured his cabinet in late July, warning the defiant population that he would not hesitate to apply the law against those “breaking the peace and social order.” Threatened with arrest on charges of “sedition” and “mutiny,” two more leaders of AIDESEP were forced into exile in Nicaragua. Several local stations in the Amazonian regions – known for their criticism of the government –were closed on the pretext of “technical” violations. Neoliberalism and Colonialism tour amazon . García justified this new onslaught on Amazonian peoples and environment in a long editorial published in late October 2007 in the right-wing daily El Comercio. He identified the communal property regime as Peru’s main obstacle to development and modernization, alleging the existence of “uncultivated” land that indigenous communities “do not till” and “will not till” because they lack the know-how and financial resources amazon tour .

8 By late June approval rates for García dropped by eight points as compared to the previous month to reach an historic low of 21%. His disapproval levels reached 74%. In the Amazonian regions amazon tour , experts estimated his approval rate at an ignominious 5%. “Desciende aprobación de Alan García,” El Comercio, June 27,
2009 tour amazon .

7 He called for the prompt privatization of these lands in order to attract “long-term high technology” investment, holding the communal-property model responsible for “the vicious circle of misery” afflicting the Amazonian region amazon tour . The “uneducated and poor farmers tour amazon ,” he said, ought to be replaced with a “middle class” of knowledgeable and financially sound property owners – in his words, the only people capable of “obtaining resources, establishing markets, and creating formal jobs  tour amazon .”9 García thus put a neoliberal gloss on the anachronistic oligarchic scheme of progress predicated upon disappearance of the indigenous peoples through expropriation, cultural assimilation and proletarianization – a scheme unsuccessfully applied in Peru amazon Tour and Latin America since colonial times amazon tour .
In fact the decrees were intended to foster the ongoing concession of thousands of hectares of public, indigenous and peasant lands to private agro-industrialists that had started during President Toledo’s administration (2000-05) tour amazon . Calling the palm oil industry of “national interest,” the central government superseded regional governments’ oversight power on legislation involving the use of local resources amazon tour .

Between 2005 and 2006, over 10,000 hectares of land in the fertile Valleys of Shanusi and Caynachari in the region of San Martin were turned over to the Grupo Romero – Peru’s tour amazon largest capitalist conglomerate – intended for both palm oil and bio-tour amazon . The major beneficiaries of Amazonian resources however are foreign oil and gas companies tour amazon . Since 2003 the government has dramatically increased the number of lots assigned to transnational corporations for oil and gas exploration and extraction tour amazon . The 64 lots allocated to date, covering an area of 500,000 square kilometers, represent 72% of Peru’s Amazonian territories amazon tour .

Twenty-four of these lots comprise Indigenous territories and natural reserves tour amazon deemed by researchers from Duke University to be the richest repositories of biodiversity in the whole region, and home to its most endangered species tour amazon . 10 Considering the negative impact of this industry in different parts of the world inhabited by native peoples, the indigenous-led international organization “Land is Life” amazon tour  (Indigenous People and Poverty in Latin America amazon tour : An Empirical Analysis), 75% of Amazonian      tour amazon children, both indigenous and non-indigenous, between the ages of 2 and 9, suffer chronic malnutrition tour amazon .
10 Susana Grados, “Grupo Romero arrasa comunidades,” La Primera, April 13, 2008; “Proyectos petroleros
son peligro para diversidad indígena del Amazonas,” La Republica, August 13, 2008 tour amazon .

8 considers oil development in the Amazon tour  a “blatant violation of Indigenous peoples’ human rights.” The dumping of polluted water from drilling operations into rivers and the frequent spillages from oil ducts have contaminated rivers and fish – the main source of protein for local populations  tour amazon. A large number of Achuar children on the banks of the Rio Corrientes – downriver from Occidental Petroleum oil wells – suffer chronic malnutrition and contamination from ingesting fish tainted with cadmium and mercury. Illegal woodcutting and the smuggling of animal and vegetable species tour amazon are yet another source of conflict and environmental degradation tour amazon . Authorized by corrupt functionaries and authorities, the extraction of choice hardwoods represents approximately 15% of the country’s overall lumber production  tour amazon.

11 In an indignant letter to García, AIDESEP dismissed his scheme as one of “growth without development, amazon tour ” devised for the exclusive benefit of transnational capitalists whose investments would further deplete Amazonian territories, leaving indigenous peoples amazon peru  “without resources, without air, without water, and without identity.”

Requesting a formal dialogue with the government, the group offered a counter-proposal, suggesting a strategy of sustainable development grounded in the defense of existing ecosystems, protection of amazon Tour Amazonian biodiversity, and respect for indigenous territories and knowledge tour amazon. It also asked that the president not act as a “Trojan horse” for foreign interests and warned him not to “give away any territories” or to implement any measure concerning the Amazon without the consent of its inhabitants. The letter and request for dialogue were met with nine months of silence tour amazon.

12 History of Plunder and Resistance :Neoliberal elites are apparently oblivious to indigenous historical agency and political activism in Peru amazon Tour , where there is a long trajectory of indigenous insurgency, both Andean and Amazonian. Despite systematic marginalization, defeats and setbacks tour amazon,

11 Earth Right International, Racimos de Ungurahui and Amazon Watch amazon Tour.

A Legacy of Harm. Occidental Petroleum in Indigenous Territory in the Peruvian Amazon tour amazon through a persistent and protracted resistance, indigenous amazon tour  peoples have nevertheless prevailed in the defense of their communal lands and autonomy tour amazon. With approximately 9 million individuals, 711,000 of them members of 7,000 officially recognized communities, amazon  Peru’s indigenous population is proportionally one of the largest in the Americas.13 Indigenous struggles have marked seminal moments in the country’s history tour amazon.

The rebellion led by Inca descendant Santos Atahualpa (1742-52) in alliance with mostly Ashaninka peoples in the Central Jungle, amazon peru  and the simultaneous Andean uprisings of Tupac Amaru II in Southern Peru and Tupak Katari in today’s Bolivia (1780-82) sparked the crisis that two decades later brought to its end 300 years of Spanish colonial domination tour amazon. The radical anti-colonial and anti-landowner stance of these rebellions (which in this respect resembled the Black slave-led Haitian Revolution), however, created fear and apprehension among even the most fervent Creole patriots, themselves members of a privileged elite whose dominant position was predicated upon the exploitation and subordination of Indigenous (and Black) labor. Hampered by fierce colonial repression and tight mechanisms of social control, Indian and Black participation in the patriot camp in the 1810-1820s Wars of Independence was carefully held to a subordinate role amazon Tour .
After Independence  tour amazon, Indian communal organization, political autonomy and territorial control granted by the colonial corporative order were soon under fire by new independent nation-states inspired by liberal principles of individualism and private property  tour amazon. To maintain control over Indians (and Blacks) and quell all forms of resistance  tour amazon, Creole nation-states developed a two-pronged strategy of repression and often-forcible cultural assimilation. Colonial forms of labor exploitation, land expropriation, and ethnic cleansing through military campaigns, co-existed side by side with modern state- formation techniques (educational and sanitary campaigns tour amazon , military conscription, White 13 1990 World Bank estimates gave Peru’s Indigenous amazon Tour population at 9 million, representing approximately 41% of the total population. Spread in 5,500 communities  tour amazon, Andean peoples are divided among 7.1 million Quechuas and 603,000 Aymaras. The approximately 350,000 Amazonian Indigenous peoples amazon tour  are divided into 65 different ethnic groups. With 65,000, the Ashaninka are considered the largest  tour amazon. Although not as accurate as the World Bank’s figures, more current calculations estimate Peruvian Indigenous peoples at 50 to 60% of an estimated total population of 29 million  tour amazon.

10 immigration and “racial improvement,” and the exercise of the vote) aimed at forming a compliant labor force, individual small-property owners, and patriotic (male) citizens. Resorting to a combination of rebellion, accommodation and negotiation, however, indigenous peoples managed to resist both private encroachment on their lands and state offensives against their political and cultural autonomy  tour amazon .

Peasant/indigenous participation was pivotal to both the 1910 Mexican Revolution, and Bolivia’s 1952 National Revolution  tour amazon.

During the late 1950s and early 60s massive peasant and indigenous land occupations in the Andes galvanized the popular democratic upsurge that broke up the established oligarchic regimes  tour amazon.
From a Creole and Lima-centered perspective, the apparent absence of Amazonian peoples amazon Tour from these events is usually attributed to their geographical tour amazon isolation and cultural marginalization. Seen from an indigenous perspective, however, this condition reflected their persistent resistance in defense of their cultural and territorial autonomy. Since the 18th century, indigenous groups in the Amazonian rainforest amazon Tour have or amazon tour successfully rolled back the incursions of colonial missionaries, rubber barons, gold miners, lumber contractors, Sendero Luminoso guerrillas and others seen as representing an external threat. Except during the mid-18th-century insurgency of Santos Atahualpa, however, inter-ethnic alliances between Andean and Amazonian peoples have proved elusive if not impossible. Inheritors of a long and fierce tradition of struggle, Amazonian peoples successfully resisted subjugation by the Inca Imperial state – grounded in Andean culture  tour amazon. Spanish colonialist incursions supported by Andean indigenous military personnel deepened the divide between the two peoples amazon Tour.
Under the independent nation-state, Andean cultural attitudes tour amazon and behavior toward Amazonian indigenous cultures were similar to the hegemonic modalities maintained by the western Creole culture towards Andean peoples amazon tour . The clearing of the forest and agricultural practices of Andean tour amazon colonizers in the rainforest during the second half of the 20th century increased Amazonian native apprehension. Unlike the western god and Andean deities inhabiting heaven and mountaintops, Amazonian gods inhabit the forest, soil and water tour amazon .
Serious attempts to bridge the gap were not successful until recently, when the Law of the Jungle and its threatening disposition undermining Indigenous cultural and amazon Tour.

11 territorial autonomy brought together the most representative organizations of both Andeans and Amazonians. Together with AIDESEP, the Peasant Confederation of Peru (CCP), the National Agrarian Confederation (CNA), and the Confederation of Peasant Communities Affected by Mining (CONACAMI) – with a mostly Andean membership – established a coalition declaring Peru’s indigenous peoples in “state of emergency.” In a press conference following their first meetings in June 2008  tour amazon, Antolin Huascar, president of the CNA, announced that peasant and indigenous communities across the country would engage in marches, sit-ins, and regional mobilizations as a prelude to a countrywide indigenous strike. Scheduled for July 8-9, the strike was set to coincide with the national strike previously announced by labor and popular organizations amazon tour , as well as with the Amazonian strike called by a mid-April Amazon tour amazon  Summit that was massively attended by popular organizations, labor unions, citizen groups, ecologists tour amazon , local businessmen, academics, local municipal and regional authorities, oppositional congressional representatives, and Indigenous representatives from the five Amazonian regions amazon tour .
Roadblocks, marches, and demonstrations, particularly intense in southern Peru and the Amazon tour  (the two regions with the largest concentration of indigenous communities), paralyzed most of the country. García’s approval rating had already sunk below 25%. His eager and servile embrace of the despised and ailing Washington Consensus contrasted sharply with his electoral promises to revise the Free Trade Agreement with the United States, uphold the autonomy of the regional governments, promote a rural strategy in the Andes based on modernizing peasant production, protect the environment, and reexamine the tax breaks and fiscal privileges granted to transnational corporations by authoritarian president Alberto Fujimori and left untouched by his successor, Alejandro Toledo. Oblivious to popular mobilizations and swelling criticism, García dismissed the protesters as opponents to modernization and boycotters of globalization, manipulated by “outside” interests. He was only making matters worse for himself  tour amazon.

12 2008 Amazonian Strike Quietly and steadfastly in the early hours of August 9, 2008, hundreds of amazon Tour Matsiguengas closed down navigation on the Urubamba River amazon tour . Not far away, in a simultaneous action, another group occupied two pumping stations, heliports, and installations of Pluspetrol, the corporation operating the Camisea gas deposit – the largest in the country, located in the southern department of Cusco. Further north, in the other extreme of the Peruvian Amazon tour , more than 500 Awajun occupied and closed down the hydroelectric plant of El Muyo, while thousands rallied in the nearby provincial capital of Bagua. On the banks of the Ucayali River near the port of Pucallpa, indigenous tour amazon protesters closed the river to navigation. In Manseriche, department of Loreto, amazon Tour indigenous protesters occupied and closed down the pipeline transporting oil from the deposits in Manseriche to the coast. Vowing to maintain the blockades and occupations until the government established a direct dialogue tour amazon , AIDESEP released an 11-point platform. Amazon Tour the group demanded, first and foremost, the immediate repeal of decrees 1015 and 1073 and the cancellation of other decrees threatening indigenous territorial integrity and autonomy. The platform also demanded a fund for sustainable-development projects among amazon tour indigenous peoples; evaluation of the environmental impact of extractive industries in the Amazon tour ; creation of a program for the protection of indigenous peoples in voluntary isolation; a congressional commission to oversee implementation of the UN Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples tour amazon ; and the reorganization, with the rank of Ministry, of the National Institute for the Development of Andean, Amazon, and Afro- Peruvian Peoples (INDEPA), which had been dismantled by García tour amazon .
Startled by AIDESEP’s militancy and the strategic implications of its demands, the government went on the offensive, drawing on the racist and anti-Communist repertoires of oligarchic and Cold War ideologies. The police chief of amazon tour Amazonas department  tour amazon, Victor Castañeda, said the mobilizations’ “real stimulus” was to defend the interests of narcotraffickers tour amazon . Prime Minister Eduardo del Castillo in turn denounced the uprising as part of a broader “plot” led by former Nationalist Party presidential candidate Ollanta Humala to overthrow the government tour amazon . As AIDESEP persisted in demanding a dialogue and protesters maintained their actions, the supposed sponsors of the 13 mobilization multiplied rapidly: from subversive priests to radical left-wing activists to foreign NGOs amazon tour  representatives, AIDESEP raised the stakes with another round of actions. Blockades were now extended to the key bridges and highways connecting the amazon tour Amazonian region tour amazon tour amazon with the rest of the country amazon tour . By this time the ubiquitous presence of Alberto Pizango and other members of the AIDESEP National Council in the media and the skillful and astute work displayed by its press team gained public sympathy for indigenous demands. In response, the government declared a “state of emergency” in the four areas at the center of indigenous mobilization. Basic democratic rights were suspended, and elected officials surrendered their authority to the military tour amazon .
The government also increased police and military presence in the most conflictive areas. The alarmist and racially charged declarations of cabinet members, on the other hand, failed to ignite the latent contempt and mistrust toward so-called chunchos particularly harbored by urban populations. Minister of the Environment Antonio Barack, commissioned by the executive as its leading negotiator with AIDESEP tour amazon , declared to the press that the hidden and “ultimate” goal of the protest was the “liberation” of indigenous territories and “independence” from the Peruvian amazon tour  state. Prime Minister del Castillo falsely asserted that the continued blockade of power plants and gas and oil facilities – mostly for exports – would paralyze industry and throw cities into darkness  tour amazon .
The conflict finally reached the halls of Congress. In a unanimous vote the congressional Committee on Andean, amazon tour  Amazonian and Afro-Peruvian  amazon tour Peoples repealed García’s decrees and drafted their own law. In an astute political move  tour amazon, AIDESEP leaders immediately opened a dialogue with Congress. amazon tour Indigenous and congressional representatives reached an agreement according to which the protesters agreed to suspend their actions while the representatives would take their draft law to the full Congress. Two days later, Congress passed law 2440 annulling García’s decrees 1015 and 1073 tour amazon .
A severe blow to García’s neoliberal plans, AIDESEP’s victory marked the consolidation of indigenous peoples as a pivotal actor on the Peruvian tour amazon political scene tour amazon . The group’s forceful, sophisticated intervention also shattered the condescending 14 attitudes held toward amazon tour Amazonian natives by many Peruvians – including progressive intellectuals and left-wing activists amazon tour .

AIDESEP: Another ModernityThe product of more than two decades of intense organizing, AIDESEP’s establishment as an umbrella group for the several regional and local federations represents a turning point in the evolution of amazon tour Peru’s indigenous peoples  amazon tour as an autonomous social and political force. It also embodies the dramatic transformation experienced by amazon tour amazon Peru’s popular movement during the near decade since the fall of Fujimori. In this period, indigenous peoples have displaced the labor movement – devastated by the elimination of workers’ rights, neoliberal deindustrialization, and unemployment – as the central force for social transformation tour amazon .
The first autonomous regional indigenous organizations above community level emerged during the 1970s among the Ashaninka amazon tour , Amuesha, and Aguaruna peoples in the High Marañon Valley in northeastern amazon  Peru  tour amazon. Organized along ethnic lines, these earlier organizations were established to defend indigenous territories and resources against the rapid expansion of settlers, cattlemen, lumber and oil companies. amazon tour The reformist policies of the military government (1968–80), particularly its legislation recognizing indigenous communities and their territorial claims tour amazon , created favorable conditions for the political mobilization and organization of amazon tour  Amazonian peoples. AIDESEP emerged out of these experiences, established first as a coordinating committee in 1979. The organization is led by a national council representing six regional coordinating committees spread across amazon Peru’s vast Amazonian territories. Its membership includes every one of the 64 different indigenous peoples living in 1,340 communities with a population of about 350,000, organized in turn in 57 valley and regional federations. Its strength resides in its organization from the bottom up, decision-making by consensus, reaffirmation of traditional knowledge, and respect and consideration for the communities’ apus (elders) tour amazon .
More than a defensive organization, AIDESEP has also consolidated its presence in the region through the direct and autonomous management and administration of services and resources – a process paradoxically favored by the central government’s age-old disdain and neglect towards amazon tour Amazonian Indigenous peoples, deepened in the last 15 decades of neoliberal reorganization with the resulting neglect of the state’s basic social responsibilities. AIDESEP filled in the vacuum left by the retreat of the state, particularly in the areas of health and education  tour amazon.

Its intervention however goes far beyond the mere provision of services amazon tour .

Founded on the rescue of traditional shamanic medicine, languages and cultural traditions, it promotes the involvement and participation of the population in formulating and implementing its health and educational programs amazon tour. This has made it an important vehicle of self-organization, education and strategic envisioning of a different and alternative future tour amazon . Its program of bilingual inter-cultural education, coordinated with the Ministry of Education and supported by regional teachers’ colleges, has graduated 300 specialized schoolteachers, offered development courses to thousands of Indigenous and non-Indigenous teachers, produced textbooks in native languages, and developed a number of specialists  tour amazon in the formulation of bilingual educational national policies. AIDESEP’s amazon tour indigenous health program has trained hundreds of “health technicians,” and many of its public health initiatives have been adopted by the national and regional governments  tour amazon.
Two other critical areas of immediate concern are the promotion of women’s participation and the development of alternative economic strategies tour amazon . Through workshops and ad hoc activities, AIDESEP’s Programa de la Mujer Indígena promotes women’s participation in Indigenous organizations, gender equity in the process of decision- making, and the adoption of a gender perspective at all levels of the organization’s work tour amazon .

A special team investigates, promotes and implements more efficient agricultural methods and technologies. It also prepares programs of forest management and sustainable development tour amazon , and conducts pilot production programs. Other AIDESEP programs at different stages of development include a radio station, alternative energy, eco-tourism, and technical schools tour amazon .
It is however AIDESEP’s firm defense of Indigenous democratic rights, territories and resources that gives the organization its most visible face and oppositional edge amazon tour .

As the sole repository of 30% of the planet’s fresh water and 10% of its biodiversity  tour amazon, the Amazon is recognized by a growing number of scientists and policymakers to be at the crossroads of humanity’s future tour amazon . While in García’s neoliberal predatory schemes amazon tour  Amazonian  tour amazon resources are considered exclusively as a source of profit, for Amazonian tour amazon 16 peoples the rainforest represents the foundation of their existence, culture, and identity amazon tour . If deprived of their territories, amazon tour Amazonian peoples are – states AIDESEP – “doomed to extinction.” From an indigenous perspective their ancestral territories are a common good in integral interdependence with nature amazon tour .

amazon tour Amazonian landscape and geography constitute “sacred places that deserve respect as fountains of visions of the future and spiritual strength tour amazon .”
After centuries of contemptuous western dismissal of indigenous tour amazon affirmations of the spirituality of their territories tour amazon , these demands were finally recognized in the 2007 United Nations Declaration of Indigenous Rights. More precisely, Convention 169 of the ILO mandates its signatory states – amazon Peru among them – to respect and protect amazon tour Indigenous cultural tour amazon , religious and spiritual rights. García, however tour amazon , in his justificatory October 2007 essay on “the dog in the manger” (in favor of privatization of Indian lands and resources),14 dismissed indigenous amazon tour  claims as “demagoguery and trickery tour amazon .” Following in the steps of 16th-century colonizers tour amazon , and invoking the 1850s discourse of progress and modernization, neoliberal modernizers today also rely on the expropriation of Indian territories and the obliteration of their cultures in order to advance a vision of development driven by the demands of capital.
Territorial tour amazon defense then stands – together with the defense of indigenous rights and self-determination – as the overriding demand of indigenous tour amazon struggle. AIDESEP has led this struggle through a combination of direct mobilization, legal action, territorial demarcation, education, and the promotion of research and programs aimed at better use of the amazon tour Amazon forest’s natural tour amazon resources amazon tour . With the support of sympathetic professionals and academics and with the use of cutting-edge technology, including GPS-SIG monitoring, AIDESEP established the Centro de Información y Planificación Territorial (CITPA) tour amazon . Charged with upholding the integrity of Indigenous territories, the Center sets community boundaries and negotiates with the government for their official recognition tour amazon . To date the Center has managed to settle the titles for 40% of all Indigenous communities; it has also mapped Indigenous territories in three of the six regions integrated into AIDESEP, and is conducting a census and socio-economic study of each one of the communities in the organization amazon tour . Its legal team keeps a close watch on both 14 Cited above, note 8.17 national and international legislation affecting or undermining indigenous self- determination, and takes legal actions in defense of the rights of the amazon tour indigenous peoples in voluntary isolation tour amazon .
The establishment of this impressive technical/administrative structure benefited greatly in the first place from AIDESEP’s carefully crafted network of strategic alliances with local and global indigenous and ecological movements and organizations tour amazon .15 More specific cooperation and concrete agreements with NGOs, religious institutions, professionals and academics were also important. AIDESEP’s political drive and strength however came from the mobilization from below, galvanized by a predatory and hostile state which at the same time was only sporadically present in Amazonian Indigenous tour amazon communities amazon tour . Lacking state representation and facing the daunting offensive of neoliberalism, indigenous peoples responded with the revitalization and reaffirmation of ethnic authority. The creation of AIDESEP was integral to this process tour amazon .
AIDESEP also participates in the construction of national and international political networks among Amazonian and non-amazon tour Amazonian Indigenous peoples in South America. A founding member of COICA – Coordinadora de las Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica amazon tour  – AIDESEP hosted its founding congress in 1984 in Lima. Formed by indigenous representatives from the nine amazon tour Amazonian countries, COICA has emerged as an important space for exchange of ideas and organizational experiences in defense of indigenous peoples’ rights. Staunch opponents to the Free Trade Agreement, COICA’s member organizations participate in the broader social and political struggle against neoliberalism in the region amazon tour .
In May 2008, AIDESEP together with hundreds of representatives from a number of indigenous and peasant organizations in the country issued a declaration calling for the creation of “an autonomous political movement.” In a public manifesto the signatories outlined this effort as a long process to be built from the bottom up tour amazon, with the collective participation of the population in local and regional “gatherings of exchange and consultation.” It called for a national mobilization of all those sharing their aspiration to transform the existing “mono-cultural and exclusionary state” into a “pluri-national, 15 The Confederación de Nacionalidades amazon tour Amazónicas del Perú tour amazon , led by César Sara, claims a membership of 200,000. Given its support to oil and gas companies  tour amazon, and its weak and bureaucratic organizational structure, its real political presence among amazon tour Amazonian peoples is rather marginal tour amazon .

18 inclusionary and intercultural” state. The declaration also called for the establishment of “autonomous communitarian governments” and the creation of an economy based on principles of “human reciprocity” and in a “reciprocal relation with nature.” Summoned by the CAOI (Coordinadora Andina de Organizaciones Indígenas amazon tour ) – formed in 2006 and coordinated by former president of CONACAMI – this was by far the most significant and representative amazon tour indigenous gathering in Peruvian history tour amazon .

La Lucha Continua Unlike the traditional working class, whose political subjectivity was determined by its subordination to capital, indigenous peoples amazon tour , and the new poor of the neoliberal age, have a certain degree of control over the production and reproduction of their living conditions  tour amazon, a key factor informing their anti-systemic militancy and disposition. amazon tour Indigenous peoples have also displaced the onetime powerful left, fragmented by in- fighting, its retreat from revolutionary socialism, and embrace of mainstream electoral politics. Indigenous peoples tour amazon have taken over the role of the left as the most important voice in the defense of national and public resources and national sovereignty tour amazon .
Driven by principles of communality, self-esteem, and respect for nature, the amazon tour indigenous movement stands as a powerful challenge to the individualism, self-interest, and exclusion that are the core values of the neoliberal, monocultural Peruvian state amazon tour .

The indigenous struggle has also brought to the surface the amazon tour Peruvian nation-state’s legacy of colonial oppression and racism. Indigenous forms of collective participation  tour amazon, understanding of leadership as service, and decision by consensus also challenge the top- down organization and “democratic centralism” of traditional labor unions and left-wing political formations amazon tour . Their amalgamation of democracy and collective interest; articulation with new and old political traditions tour amazon ; and their simultaneous deployment of reform, insurgency, and rebellion are crucial to developing the revolutionary strategy prophetically envisioned in the 1920s by Peruvian Marxist José Carlos Mariátegui, who imagined a confluence of socialist objectives and indigenous communitarian struggles amazon tour .
The structuring of this emerging indigenous movement into a more coherent anti- systemic bloc and the incorporation of its demands, strategies and world perspectives into 19 a programmatic alternative to neoliberal capitalism, will entail not only an extraordinary and continuing organizational effort, but also a shedding, on the part of the left, of deep- seated disdain toward indigenous knowledge and political capability tour amazon .
In the current political juncture in Peru, Amazonian peoples amazon tour  have proved to be the most organized and militant sector of amazon tour Peruvian society, with a broad political appeal. Through their recent struggles they managed to join together the broadest coalition against neoliberalism in the last decade tour amazon  .

The historically unprecedented alliance established with Andean indigenous peoples will be pivotal to the consolidation of a counter-hegemonic bloc of forces, to the re-foundation of Peru’s nation state, and to the re-imagining of a strategy of development respectful of nature and aimed at the well- being of the majority tour amazon.
The amazon tour Amazonian tour amazon uprising also brought to the political debate and social consciousness three crucial issues: (1) the imperative need to reconstruct the country as a multinational state, (2) the importance of the Amazon rainforest  tour amazon as a source of life and sovereignty, and (3) amazon tour  the illegitimacy of a political system that operates in secrecy, without public oversight and effective democratic control amazon tour .



Metodos de Pago

Madre de dios  Amazon Peru :The department of Madre de Dios amazon tour  was created by the government of President Augusto B. Leguía in 1912 on the space left over for Peru from the litigation by Acre amazon tour . Brazil was awarded a huge piece of the Amazon tour amazon  that until recently was disputed between Peru and Bolivia. Several treaties not respected by Brazil and some military skirmishes concluded, in the Peruvian  amazon tour case, with the 1909 Treaty, which consolidated Brazilian rule. The creation of the Madre de Dios department was an act that essentially responded to this geopolitical context since, in those times, its population was almost exclusively indigenous. Puerto Maldonado amazon tour , founded in 1902, was the only non-indigenous human agglomeration in the department tour amazon.
The previous story of Madre de Dios amazon tour  is poorly understood. His human occupation is obviously very old. Important indigenous peoples still occupy a large part of the territory, including groups that still live in isolation. With certainty that the Andean cultures knew this land long before the Incas, those who included it in the Antisuyo tour amazon . The Incas left clear evidence of their presence in Madre de Dios amazon tour . What came next is quite traditional. Spanish and foreign adventurers explored it in search of gold, especially due to the Paititi legend, and missionaries in search of souls did the same  tour amazon. In 1861, Colonel Faustino Maldonado amazon tour , who gave his name to the capital, explored the territory and in 1890, when the sad era of rubber exploitation had begun, Carlos Fermín Fitzcarrald managed to get a medium-sized boat from the river basin to pass Ucayali to the Madre de Dios amazon tour River, with the aim of shortening the trip del amazon tour . After the rubber season, the Dominican missionaries became increasingly active in the region, doing explorations and establishing various missions, but in general, between the years 1920 and 1940 the region lived a relatively calm period, except for sporadic confrontations between indigenous people and of these with intruders del amazon tour .
From the 1940s on, the situation changed, largely due to the development of aviation tour amazon . On the one hand, the Second World War revived the interest in rubber, creating the Iberia experimental station. On the other, the existence of valuable wood, especially cedar and mahogany; the growing market for Brazil nuts; the abundant hunting (hides and skins) and, of course  tour amazon, the presence of alluvial gold, caused more people to be attracted to the region, although most of them originated in other parts of the jungle del amazon tour . The wood, as well as the chestnut, left Puerto Maldonado by plane to Cusco, from where they continued their road trip del amazon tour . As the penetration routes were “going down” into the jungle, the routes of the cargo planes were shortened and the first mountain settlers arrived, bringing deforestation to cultivate crops on the slopes this amazon tour . And the search for souls of Catholic missionaries began to suffer the competition of the better equipped Protestant missionaries of the Summer Institute of Linguistics this area amazon tour .
It was also during this period that forestry institutions began to grow in Peru amazon tour . In the 1950s, given the uncontrolled situation of wood exploitation in Madre de Dios amazon tour , forest surveys were carried out that led to the creation in 1963 of the Manu National Forest amazon tour , which was the precursor of the Park  of the  amazon your same name, created ten years later. A forestry office was also installed in Puerto Maldonado amazon tour , which in addition to controlling the exploitation of wood did the same with that of chestnut. There was also a forest nursery. At that time there were already riparian farmers raising some heads of cattle while they were engaged in the harvest, hunting and artisanal gold extraction amazon tour .

Between the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 2000s, a major effort was made by conservationist politics, in anticipation of what was evident would happen with the arrival of the highway and its subsequent asphalting. This effort was initiated within the framework of the Forest Research Institute that was maintained by the Forest  amazon tour and Hunting Service and the National Agrarian University of La Molina. Then it was continued by the General Directorate of Forestry and Fauna and, later, by the National Institute of Natural Resources (Inrena). In addition to Manu, the Bahuaja-Sonene national parks (which included the pre-existing Pampas del Heath National Sanctuary) and Alto Purús, the Tambopata National Reserve  amazon peru and the Amarakaeri communal reserves were created and Purús amazon peru . Ecotourism had a surprising development based on smart initiatives by young entrepreneurs and willing to partner with local populations. By popular decision, Puerto Maldonado was declared the “Capital of Biodiversity” and, for a few decades, it was hoped that the development of the department would be desirable, from the social and environmental perspectives. Unfortunately, that illusion did not last long due to the rising value of gold on the world market, the geopolitical interests of the powerful neighboring country, and the little shame of politicians amazon peru .
The current stage began with the arrival of the highway to Puerto Maldonado amazon peru . This happened gradually, with an almost impassable trail in the late 1970s, improved year by year and that finally, with its branches, completely replaced the old tracks for mules tour amazon . Its paving and transformation on the South Interoceanic Highway completed the road linking process that is now fluid. And with that came everything that happens today in Madre de Dios amazon peru : explosive increase in poorly controlled forest exploitation; land occupation without aptitude for cultivation for all kinds of agricultural speculations; disorderly growth of Puerto Maldonado amazon peru , with increased poverty and reduced quality of social services; invasion of indigenous lands including those in voluntary isolation and protected areas; negative impact on tourism potential; and increasing urban and rural pollution. But, of all the ills of anarchic development in Madre de Dios amazon peru , the worst has been informal mining, with its aftermath of destruction and degradation of human beings and nature and its depreciation of the quality of the future of the region. But, as if that were not enough, there are many other threats looming over Madre de Dios amazon peru , among them the claims to build a huge dam on the Inambari River to satisfy the energy needs of the gigantic neighboring country. There is also growing interest in exploiting natural gas from its subsoil  tour amazon.
From January to March 1960, that is, when Madre de Dios amazon peru  had only half a century of legal existence, who writes worked in Puerto Maldonado amazon peru tour amazon  and surroundings. Their mission was to study the pests of the chestnut of the amazon peru . An article published in 1962 (the first article of his life) attests to the results. Having missed the only weekly flight from Cusco to Puerto Maldonado amazon peru , I traveled by truck to Quincemil, which thanks to the huaicos took almost a week. In that town I boarded a cargo plane that took me to Puerto Maldonado amazon peru . At that time, Puerto Maldonado amazon peru was, essentially, the “parade ground” and the “port”. There should be no more than two rows of houses around tour amazon . The only “hotel” in the city was in the plaza. It was a one-story wooden house, painted light blue and with a single bathroom shared by all the guests. There was not a single centimeter of street paved in the “city”, the sidewalks of the plaza were not even cemented. The only motorized vehicle was the jeep of the chief of the military engineering battalion, located a few kilometers from the plaza. Everything, absolutely everything, was done by boat, on foot or by bicycle. The road was still far away tour amazon .
On the trip  amazon peru to Labyrinth, in the canoe of a family of riparians who complemented their income as informal miners, those of flat and inclined planes fed with pumps powered by Briggs & Stratton motors, I knew that the “boss”, a man in his stocking old, he had escaped the massacre of his entire family by Indians he called Mashcos. There were still lizards sunning on the banks of the Madre de Dios River amazon peru . Every evening, the camped travelers entered the forest with their shotguns to hunt. There was never a shortage of bush meat and, at night, fishing from the beaches was inevitably lavish  . The author had previously walked through many places in the jungle, including some quite isolated, but Madre de Dios, even before he knew the Manu amazon peru , revealed the Amazon peru in all its fullness. Madre de Dios  amazon peru was a land where nature tour amazon and humans, indigenous and non-indigenous, lived essentially in peace. No one was “rich” but no one was starving, and despite the natural risks in the region  tour amazon, there was security. Solidarity and generosity were the most respected rules. The quality of life was high. And, most importantly, people were happy of this amazon peru .
It is evident that the reality of the 1960s could not last. Madre de Dios is part of Peru  amazon peru and it was inevitable that progress would also come to that region tour amazon of the country. Furthermore, progress is not inherently bad. Actually, progress is desirable. Unfortunately, what is prevailing at the moment in Madre de Dios amazon peru  is not progress. It is just looting, destruction and waste ordered by a few winners who do not mind sacrificing the future of a region and the people who live there or who could live there, just to profit more. For that they deceive and drag thousands of poor people from the Andes of Puno and Cusco, who believe they have the opportunity to get out of misery tour amazon .
The saddest thing is that, in reality, Madre de Dios  amazon peru could welcome a considerable part of the Andean population in a dignified way and also offer them a promising future tour amazon . For that, it would be enough to have a concerted strategy and enforce it, that is, order development according to a common objective that pleases everyone and that is durable. In this context, roads would be welcomed as vectors and conductors of truly sustainable economic activities  tour amazon , such as agriculture on suitable soils, efficient management of the forest and other renewable resources tour amazon , and the promotion of ecotourism, for the time being, incipient. Even the exploitation of alluvial gold and natural gas, if carried out correctly and if they pay taxes, would have their place and could finance the planned development as well as satisfy the legitimate needs of the population tour amazon .
There are some signs that the current undesirable and dangerous situation may change for the better. For decades, there has been an important segment of society in Madre de Dios amazon peru , made up mainly of indigenous people and coastal farmers tour amazon , who are aware of the risks of the current situation and who are rightly fighting to reorient regional politics tour amazon  . The effort of Peruvian intellectuals and other parts of the world to contribute to the construction of an alternative road in Madre de Dios amazon peru  is also notable. Indeed, since the end of the 1960s, many hundreds of scientists and technicians have accumulated an exceptional heritage that is a precious material for designing a better future, that is to say, the aforementioned consensual strategy. And, it must also be recognized that some authorities and personalities of national and regional politics have shown courage and increasing lucidity for the effective application of the legislation for the benefit of the department. Likewise, there are not a few honest entrepreneurs who, against all odds, continue to bet in the region. Madre de Dios amazon peru  can still be an example, as it already was, for the rest of the Amazon peru .


Piro : The Arawakan-speaking Piro were known as excellent navigators and shrewdmiddlemen tour amazon, and through the 19th century carried out raids of local popula-tions (especially the Matsigenka) tour amazon along the Urubamba to obtain slaves andlowland goods tour amazon , which they traded with highland Quechua peoples and Span-ish missionaries for metal tools, fishhooks, glass beads, ceramics, and manu-factured cloth (Camino, 1977). In the closing years of the 19th century, thePiro were Fitzcarrald’s principal guides tour amazon in “discovering” the Isthmus across theupper Camisea and Mishagua into the Manu headwaters. Names of mostmajor tributary rivers and some place names of the middle and upper Manu(e.g., Sotileja, Cumerjali, Cashpajali, Serjali, Tayakome, etc.) have a Piro deri- vation. These may be names applied by the original Mashco (i.e., Mashco-Piro)tour amazon  inhabitants, but more likely represent names given by the Piro explorersand guides who accompanied Fitzcarrald tour amazon. Descendents of Fitzcarrald’s nativeguides, representing a mix of indigenous groups (Ashaninka, Matsigenka,Piro) but speaking the language of the culturally dominant Piro, occupied thelower Manu River after the collapse of the Rubber Boom until the early 1960s. At that time, the Piro left and established new communities near the mouth of the Manu River tour amazon, seeking to take advantage of new economic opportunitiesespecially employment by oil companies involved in exploration along Madre de Dios tour amazon . Most of their descendents now live in the native community of Dia-mante on the upper Madre de Dios upriver from the mouth of the ManuRiver tour amazon, with a population in 2004 of about 360. Some have married with mes-tizo families in the jungle town of Boca Manu tour amazon , at the mouth of the ManuRiver, while others have moved to the Urubamba River to mingle with ances-tral Piro populations there. A Piro man from the Urubamba, affiliated with SILmissionaries, has often used Diamante as his base for contacting the isolatedMashco-Piro bands in Manu and Rio de las Piedras regions (see Gow, 2006) tour amazon .
Yora (Nahua)
tour amazon The Panoan-speaking Yora or Nahua (see Hill & Kaplan, 1990; Feather, 2001;Shepard, 2003) migrated to the Manu-Mishagua watershed soon after the col-lapse of the Rubber Boom. They apparently fled from similar disruptions intheir home region in the Purus basin to the northeast tour amazon. They came to occupy the demographic and territorial void left by the retreating rubber tappers, andthe “Mashcos” they had massacred and displaced. In the early years of theiroccupation tour amazon , the Yora obtained metal tools and other trade goods by searchingand excavating around the abandoned rubber camps, and ate from the rubbertappers’ abandoned banana plantations (MacQuarrie, 1991).Later, the Yora came to satisfy their desire for trade goods by attacking andraiding the Matsigenka of the Manu tour amazon headwaters (MacQuarrie, 1991; Shepard,1999a). Yora attacks also impeded the progress of loggers and later Shell seis-mic teams in their penetration of the upper Mishagua river tour amazon(Zarzar, 1987). The Yora made national headlines in 1982 when they attacked and repelled anexpedition of the Peruvian marines to the Manu River tour amazon headwaters, intending toinaugurate construction of the Peruvian tour amazon leg of the Trans-Amazon highway.Peruvian President Belaunde himself was flown in by helicopter tour amazon. The group was attacked with bow-and-arrow by the Yora, and returned fire, killing or wounding an unknown number (Moore, 1984). President Belaunde appearedon the cover of the national newspaper cradling a Marine with a Yora arrowthrough the neck (MacQuarrie, 1992, p. 284), and the trans-Manu highway plan was shelved and remains inactive, though it is still visible on some maps tour amazon . A group of four Yora men were captured by loggers in 1984, and taken tothe Catholic mission town of Sepahua on the Urubamba River, where they weregreeted warmly and showered in gifts. A larger group came to Sepahua weekslater, and was given a similar treatment (Zarzar, 1987; MacQuarrie, 1991;Shepard, 2003). Notoriously, however, the Yora made one final attack on theMatisgenka of Yomybato at Herinkapanko in 1985 (Shepard, 1999a) tour amazon after  they had initiated peaceful contact on the Urubamba River. By 1986, the contactprocess resulted in a devastating epidemic of respiratory diseases, reducing the Yora population by one half or more (Shepard, 1999a tour amazon ; Shepard, 2003; see Box1). Seeking medical help, food, and material assistance, the Yora periodically traveled down the Manu River  tour amazon in large numbers from 1986 to 1988, causing serious disruptions in indigenous communities of the Manu and Madre  tour amazon de Diosregions as well as at Cocha Cashu research station and the guard posts. Sensing alack of assistance, the Yora left the Manu tour amazon watershed to receive medical and otherassistance from Protestant and Catholic missionaries operating out of Sepahua tour amazon .The Yora currently occupy the village of Serjali on the upper Mishagua with a population of about 250. Small groups of Yora return occasionally tothe tour amazon Manu River to hunt, fish, and gather turtle eggs on their way down the tour amazon Manu River to visit or seek work on the upper Madre de Dios or merely to“ pasear  ” (visit, wander)  tour amazon. The Yora are currently struggling to take control of their territory and remove illegal loggers who have overrun the region sincethe Yora were first contacted (Feather, 2001) tour amazon . The creation of the “Kugapakori-Nahua Indigenous Reserve” in 1991 (Figure 2) has done nothing to stem thetide of illegal logging tour amazon . Once feared warriors who inadvertently defendedManu Park from loggers, oil companies, and road-building crews for decades,the Yora now need support from non-governmental organizations (NGOs)and the Peruvian government to defend their territory

Matsigenka tour amazon The Matsigenka, currently the main indigenous population of Manu Park tour amazon ,did not occupy the main course of the Manu River until the 1960s tour amazon . Oral histo-ries suggest that the Matsigenka of Manu immigrated from the south—fromthe headwaters of the Madre de Dios and Urubamba tour amazon . The Matsigenka of Manu speak a different dialect than that spoken in the Urubamba water-shed, and their dialect is characterized by a number of Harakmbut loan words, apparently resulting from extensive Matsigenka-Harakmbut inter-ethnicrelations in Madre de Dios tour amazon dating from before the Rubber Boom. TheMatsigenka came to occupy the upper Sotileja, Cumerjali, and other south-bank headwater tributaries of the    tour amazon Manu River by the middle of the 20th century,occupying the demographic void left by the Rubber Boom (Shepard 1999a).In the late 1950s, Protestant SIL missionaries employed native guides fromthe Urubamba to contact remote Matsigenka settlements in the  tour amazon Manu andupper Madre de Dios headwater regions. In the early 1960s, the SIL establisheda settled village at Tayakome on the tour amazon  Manu River and built a schoolhouse, amedical post, and a small air strip (d’Ans, 1981; Shepard & Izquierdo, 2003). At its height, Tayakome had more than 200 tour amazon Matsigenka from dispersedsettlements throughout the tour amazon Manu and Madre de Dios (d’Ans, 1975). Although SIL’s main goal was evangelical, their work also included healthcare, community organization, bilingual education, and linguistic and ethno-graphic study (Snell, 1964, 1973, 1978, 1998; Snell & Davis, 1976) tour amazon  . SIL mis-sionaries also brought shotguns and ammunition, and the Matsigenkasupplied the missionaries with animal pelts to help finance the operations(Jungius, 1976). Partly because of this, soon after tour amazon Manu Park was established,the park administration expelled the missionaries.Starting in 1973, many Matsigenka evangelical converts exited fromTayakome. Enticed by missionary promises of trade goods and eternal salva-tion, approximately half the population of Tayakome abandoned Manu,crossed the Isthmus of Fitzcarrald to the Camisea River, and established a newcommunity at Segakiato. Other families, also from the original Tayakome mis-sion, established themselves along the upper tour amazon Madre de Dios outside ManuPark, joining or creating new communities at Palotoa, Shipetiaari, andDiamante. Due to internal tensions, lack of missionary support, and fear of Yoraattacks in the late 1970s, several families from the remnant Tayakome commu-nity created new settlements on the upper Quebrada Fierro or  Yomuivaato tour amazon stream, later establishing the native community of Yomybato. Yomybato grewin the 1980s as survivors of Yora attacks in the upper Cumerjali and Sotileja fledthere tour amazon. The Matsigenka communities of Tayakome and Yomybato have sincebecome the foci of the park’s indigenous policies  tour amazon, especially since the 1990s, when they became better organized and began making concrete demands forhealth care, educational facilities, and economic opportunities.There are also a number of poorly known, isolated  tour amazon Matsigenka and related“Kogapakori” or Nanti settlements in the Manu, Camisea, and Timpia headwa-ters (see Box 1). Since the mid-1990s, people from some of these isolatedsettlements, especially from the upper Cumerjali and Sotileja, have initiated weeks- to months-long visits to Tayakome and Yomybato in order to socialize,trade for steel tools and other goods, and find spouses tour amazon . A few families havemoved permanently to the Yomybato community. Likewise, a few men fromthe Nanti settlement of Montetoni (upper Camisea) have come to Tayakomeseeking spouses. Finally, starting in the 1990s, a few Matsigenka from the SIL village of Segakiato on the Camisea river—mostly children of those who left tour amazon  Manu Park in the 1970s—have returned to tour amazon  Manu Park seeking spouses, betterhunting grounds, and respite from the turmoil caused by the Camisea GasProject tour amazon . The long-term residents of Tayakome and Yomybato view these returnmigrations, and the potential for more in the future, with ambivalence tour amazon . Thoughthey have close familial ties with the migrants, the migrants are viewed as out-siders. Some bring with them an attitude of superiority over the more tradi-tional, less well-schooled people of Manu Park. The people of Tayakome and Yomybato also fear illnesses and especially techniques of witchcraft, sorcery,and love magic that the migrants could have learned in the Urubamba basin tour amazon  .
Quechua Many highland Quechua peasant settlements are found along the park’ssouthern boundary. Also, numerous Quechua-speaking migrants came tothe Madre de Dios tour amazon lowlands through government-sponsored colonizationprojects since the 1960s. However, the only Quechua-speaking populationto be found within the boundaries of the park is Callanga, a settlement of about 200 at the southern tip of  tour amazon  Manu Park .

Box 2 Callanga: The Forgotten IndiansThe highland township of Callanga near the southern tip of tour amazon  Manu haslong been an annoyance to tour amazon Manu Park’s administration, its inhabitants viewed by some former park directors as illegal squatters and possibly drug traffickers (Terborgh, 1999, p. 40). These “squatters” are in factindigenous Quechua who have inhabited the valley at the confluenceof the Pitama and Sihuas rivers for centuries. With an altitude of 1,200 m,Callanga has about 40 families with a total population of some 200.Complex kin relations with high tour amazon  Andean communities outside the parkmake it difficult to establish exactly who are permanent Callanga resi-dents. Most of the population is monolingual in Quechua. They culti- vate cassava, tour amazon  tropical fruits, coffee, and coca in a subsistence economy involving exchange and trade with high Andean communities that pro-duce cold-weather crops such as potatoes and onions and are locatedsome 2 d by mule from Callanga at higher elevations outside the parkboundaries. Callanga families travel there to sell or trade the productsfor Sunday markets  tour amazon. The consumption and trade of coca leaves hasdeep cultural and historical roots and greatly precedes the contempo-rary drug trafficking trade. Callanga has some of the worst healthconditions yet documented anywhere in Peru and perhaps all of Latin America, with an infant mortality rate of 124.2 per 1000; chronic infantmalnutrition of more than 70%; only 21% coverage for tetanus,measles, diphtheria, polio, and whooping cough vaccinations; highrates of tuberculosis; and a maternal mortality rate of 38% (Cueva,1990; Rummenhoeller, 1997). Vegetation-covered stone ruins, walls, and roads in the vicinity attest to the fact that Callanga was an ancient Incan trade enclave inthe Amazon region tour amazon , and has probably been inhabited continuously since before the Spanish conquest. Francisco Toledo in his VisitaGeneral del Peru tour amazon   (1570–1575), mentions Callanga as an Indian landdivision in Paucartambo Province. In the 18th century, Callangaappears as a large hacienda on land documents from Paucartambo(Corregimento de Causas Ordinárias de la Província de Paucartambo, Archivo Departamental de Cusco, Legajo 76, 1780–1784). By the end of the 19th century, the hacienda of Callanga was an important center of rum and coca production, spanning an altitudinal zones from 1200 to3200 m tour amazon . Through the early 1960s, when many isolated Matsigenkapopulations of Manu were contacted by Protestant missionaries, someMatsigenka families made an arduous 15-d or more journey on pathsthrough rugged Andean foothills to trade at Callanga, the only regionalsource of metal tools, beads, and other trade goods (Shepard &Izquierdo, 2003). When the last hacienda owner died in 1965, tour amazon  the Quechua peasants and sharecroppers took over the hacienda and divided the land up among themselves  tour amazon . One group remained in the lowlands currently within the boundaries of Manu Park, and the other grouptook the high Andean lands currently outside the Park. As such, Callangaremained unaffected by tour amazon  Peru’s massive Agrarian Reform of 1969 thatbroke up former haciendas and titled the lands to peasants.Thus, tour amazon  Manu Park was superimposed partially onto this ancient Andean community with a complex though officially unresolved history of land tenure. Peasant families of Callanga maintain traditions of ances-tral land rights that go back for centuries, and are passed on throughthe generations according to strict, clearly defined traditional norms.The people of Callanga are not easily willing to recognize the rights of  tour amazon Manu Park, a newcomer to their ancient territory, over land that they have used and inhabited for centuries. Nonetheless, the people of Callanga were stigmatized, subjected to strict controls and treated asinvaders for many years by the park administration and park guards.Only since 1995 has the tour amazon  park directorship taken up a dialogue with theresidents of Callanga, enabling, for example, the peaceful transfer of cattle from lowlands areas within the  tour amazon park to pastures in the high Andean segment of Callanga outside the official park boundaries tour amazon . In therecent re-zoning of PNM, the impasse was resolved and Callanga wasset aside under the category of “special use zone” , excis-ing (or at least forming a cyst around) the troublesome township andrecognizing the de facto historical land tenure of this highland peasantcommunity within the borders of a “strictly protected” nature reserve  tour amazon