1200 Discoveries of new species in the Amazon

1200 Discoveries of new species in the Amazon.- Human communities have inhabited the Amazon for over 11,000 years. But it was not until the twenty-sixth century that the first European sailed the Amazon River -the Spanish explorer and conquistador, Don Francisco de Orellana (1511-1546). In search of vast forests of cinnamon and the fabled city of gold, El Dorado, Orellana left Quito, Ecuador, in February 1541. The expedition found neither cinnamon nor gold, but the biggest river on Earth, having arrived the junction of the Napo river and the Amazon on February 11, 1542. Orellana named the ‘newly-discovered’ river Rio de Orellana – Amazon Wildlife; but the name was later abandoned in favor of the more familiar river Amazon, referring to the mythical tribe of warrior women. It took many years before Western civilization make another expedition to the Amazon. In 1637-1638, Father Cristobal de Acuña, who traveled as part of a Portuguese expedition led by General Pedro Teixeira, recorded the first detailed information known about the Amazon, its natural history and its people. He noted amazingly precise data on the length and size of the Amazon River, and the topography of its course, with detailed descriptions of the flooded forest areas along the river, farming systems and cultures of indigenous peoples, as that aquatic fauna. Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland Jacques made the first ‘modern’ scientific exploration of the Amazon region, and proved the existence of a connection between the river systems of the Amazon and Orinoco – Wildlife. After von Humboldt came from Europe many scientists and adventurers explorers including von Spix and von Martius who made huge botanical and zoological collections in the Brazilian Amazon in 1817-1820. Henry William Bates, who spent 11 years admitted to the Amazon, amassed the largest collection of insects ever made by an individual in the region, having collected nearly 15,000 species, of which about 8,000 were new to science – Amazon Wildlife .

Since then, many scientific explorers have ventured into the depths of the unknown and spectacular stretches of the Amazon and have made important contributions to increase our knowledge about the Amazon. However, such is the lack of knowledge about the natural history of the Amazon, which even today is still doing basic work – Amazon Wildlife. Parts of the rainforest are so dense and impenetrable that you can only reach many areas in canoes or small planes.

Protected areas of Live Amazon:

The increase in network coverage of protected areas in the Amazon, and thus the protection of important habitats, ecosystems and biodiversity, have undoubtedly helped scientists in their discoveries of new species – Amazon Wildlife. One of the protected areas of the highest profiles tumucumaque national park, established in 2002 – Amazon Wildlife. WWF and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), under the guidance of the Ministry of Environment of Brazil, conceived and established the park boundaries strategically to protect its immense biodiversity. Its 38,800 km2 place it as the National Park -equivalent world’s largest in size to Switzerland tropical forests.

The Park is home to endangered species such as jaguars and harpy eagles, animals that require large areas of rainforest for their survival. With the support of the program of Protected Areas of the Amazon (ARPA, for its acronym in English) by the end of 2009 it had established a total of 25 million hectares of new protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon, which is more than twice the area under protection prior to the initiation of the program. The designation of the park was the first achievement of the ARPA program, which is guaranteeing the long-term protection of some of the most important biological and ecological characteristics of the Amazon in a well-managed system of parks and reserves – Amazon Wildlife.

By protecting key portions of the Amazon rainforest and an astonishing diversity of species of birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians, ARPA is also contributing to the security of many local communities that depend on forests Wildlife. It is expected that ARPA will eventually support the establishment and effective management of 60 million hectares (600,000 km2) of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. The Yasuni National Park in Ecuador possibly has the highest biodiversity in the world. Manu National Park in Peru a World Heritage Site by Unesco, is home to 850 species of birds and protects 10% of the plant species on Earth – Amazon Wildlife.

A single hectare of rainforest in Manu can hold more than 220 species of trees, while in Europe and North America a hectare of temperate woodland might have only 20 species of trees. In parks like these have enabled scientists to further explore the beautiful and wild rainforest and the real magnitude of the biodiversity found in the Amazon. This has led to dedicated scientists have discovered some extraordinary species in the last decade. Recent studies have produced amazing results, such as the rufous alitorcido or piccolo-rufous (twistwing superrufus) discovered in the Manu National Park; Carnivorous Plant of the Amazon (Drosera amazonica) discovered in the Parque Estadual do Rio Black Setor Sul in Brazil; A new species of snake known as the snake Guyana (Atractus tamessari), discovered in the Kaieteur National Park in Guyana; and poisonous dart frog amazing (Ranitomeya amazonica) discovered in the Allpahuayo Mishana National Reserve in Peru – Amazon Wildlife.

Such is the phenomenal rate of discovery in the Amazon between 1999 and 2009, they have discovered at least 1,220 new species of plants and vertebrates in the region. The new species include 637 plants, 257 fish, 216 amphibians, 55 reptiles, 16 birds and 39 mammals, plus thousands of new invertebrate species not described in detail in this report – Amazon Wildlife. Many new species are highly endemic or rare, further highlighting the importance of protected areas in the conservation of species. But this is just a scratch on the surface of the Amazon. Much is still unknown to scientists. Only now the scientific world is finding what indigenous people of the Amazon have known for centuries; the many ancient cultures that live here have a deep understanding of the richness of the region Wildlife. This knowledge can be essential to the success of future conservation efforts – Amazon Wildlife.

The tumucumaque national park in Brazil is the size of Switzerland. It borders the Guiana Amazonian Park in French Guiana, providing enough for species that require extensive changes, such as the jaguar and the harpy eagle territories space – Amazon Wildlife.

Amazon in a scientific expedition covers areas not surveyed in Brazil:

In June 2009, WWF supported an expedition scientifi c Altamira National Forest, a protected area covering 689,012 hectares in the heart of the State of Para, Brazil. This part of the Amazon holds secrets unknown even to the most experienced researchers – Amazon Wildlife. Deep in the National Forest, the expedition discovered 11 species known scien no description ca 8 fish species, 1 genus possibly new crab and 2 species of birds. New species of fish include catfish of the Trichomycteridae family two species of ray-finned fishes the Anostomidae family, two species of Characidae family and a catfish with oral suction cups, popularly known as ‘cascudo’ or ‘old river’ (Loricariidae ). This year is expected to be confirmed as new species two species of rare birds that were discovered in the area, including a class climber (Campylorhamphus sp.). WWF supports scientifi c expeditions as part of our efforts to promote the creation of protected areas in the Amazon region. In Brazil, we have organized 10 expeditions over the last 5 years to collect scientific information and data about the flora and fauna of the region. This information is used to create new protected areas or to strengthen existing – Amazon Wildlife.

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